WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Celling Fan Wiring Diagram with Capacitor Connection

Tuesday, April 26, 2022

Celling Fan Wiring Diagram with Capacitor Connection

Celling Fan Wiring Schematic Diagram
Fig: Ceiling Fan Wiring Diagram with Capacitor Connection

How Wiring a Ceiling Fan with Capacitor Connection?

The above schematic wiring diagram of a ceiling fan shows the very simple and easy external connection that connects of ceiling fan, fan speed regulator, and ON/OFF switch with a single-phase power supply at home.

Also, shows the internal connection of running coil/winding, starting coil/winding and capacitor.

Why Capacitor is Required in a Ceiling Fan Connection?

A motor needs two windings, the main winding to run the motor and astarting winding to start the motor. 

The ceiling fan is a single-phase induction motor, which doesn't have the property of self-starting. For a single-phase AC motor 2 separate phases are required to produce a rotating MMF(Magnetomotive Force) which in turn rotates the rotor. 

But, common household electricity supply consists of only one phase. So, we must introduce a circuit which produces the second phase. 

The ceiling fan contains two winding, a starting winding and a running winding. a capacitor is connected in series with starting winding. 

When energized, the starting winding creates a phase difference which leads to approx.90 degrees with respect to running winding and thereby creates a starting torque.

When capacitors or inductors are involved in an AC circuit, the current and voltage do not peak at the same time i.e. they produce a phase difference in the waveform.

As inductors have a high AC resistance, capacitors are used to produce the second phase in the starting winding. Such motors are called capacitor start motors.

What to do when the Ceiling fan not spinning at all?

At times, you can easily fix the issue but in some cases, you need to replace the fan.

  1. Check the circuit breaker is on. If the issue is with the circuit, reset it.
  2. Turn the power off, the canopy must be loosened and checked for all the right assembly and secured wire nuts.
  3. Fan blades must spin freely. Make sure it is done.
  4. In some cases, the reverse switch will be in a neutral position.
  5. All coloured cables in the switch housing are aligned properly and verify the plug connection once more.
  6. Check for the wire connections with an electrician if you are not sure about this.
  7. For those who use remote control, there is a chance of the battery failing or may not have been installed properly.
  8. If nothing goes right, check the power getting to the wall switch.
  9. If the fan is in a wet place, make sure the fan and outlet box are UL rated for the environment. Because wet rated fans can be installed indoors, others must be installed outside.
  10. If you are not convinced with the steps above to get your problem solved, contact your ceiling fan manufacturer.


Why Ceiling Fan Rotate in Reverse Direction?

The answer to this question should know everyone to solve the problem; the answer to the question is simple-
 “If the capacitor is connected with running winding or main coil instead of starting winding auxiliary coil then the direction of rotation will be changed", Fan will rotate in reverse. 

That means if you want to change the direction of rotation of the fan, just connect the capacitor with other winding.

What to do Ceiling fan is noisy?

Out of many ceiling fan troubleshooting, this is one of the common ones.

Gentle whooshing can be soothing. But if the noise is increasing, it can be a serious problem.

  1. If this problem started soon after installation, wait for the next 24 hours as it takes time to adjust.
  2. If you use light along with the fan, check the screws connecting both
  3. If wall control is being used, confirm that control is not a differential speed pattern.
  4. If you provide oil to your fan, check the level and give oil as required.
  5. Tighten the screws on blade holders, download, and motor coupling.
  6. Confirm the wires are in right place without being connected to other inside switch housing.
  7. Check if the canopy is touching the ceiling while the fan is spinning.
  8. Cracked fan blades can make noise. Ensure it is not damaged.

How Choose The Capacitor for Ceiling Fan?

The capacitor choice depends on ceiling fan capacity and the fan operating voltage.

Generally, 3 types of voltage levels are considered
  1. Low level: 110/125 Volt;
  2. Medium Level: 200/250 Volt;
  3. High Level: 280/350 Volt.

On the other hand, fan capacity is normally 0.93 KW to  0.746 KW or 1 HP.

No need for any expert, follow the selection table and choose your fan capacitor.

Table for fan motor capacitor selection:

Fan Motor Size (KW)
Typical Capacitor Value (µF)
110/125 Vac (Vrms. max 150)
200/250 Vac (Vrms. max 275)
280/350 Vac (Vrms. max 350)

How to wire a ceiling fan properly?

Into the slot in the ceiling bracket, place the down-rod ball of the assembled motor.

  1. It must be ensured that the fan gets locked, so rotate when you are sure about the lock.
  2. The mounting bracket must be placed with the control receiver
  3. Take bare metal leads and pace a plastic wire connector to connect the wires and twist clockwise to ensure a secured connection.
  4. Push the whole connection to the outlet box.
  5. Grounded and ungrounded wires must be separated on both sides.

Connect fan wiring and receiver wires

  1. Connect the grounding wires from the down-rod, ceiling and a hanging bracket with a wire nut.
  2. Connect white wires from fan and receiver marked “To motor” with a wire nut.
  3. Similarly, do the same for black wires and blue wires

Connect wire receiver and supply line

  1. Connect black wires from the ceiling and receiver marked “AC In” with a wire nut
  2. Similarly, repeat the same for white wires too.
  3. Connections must be turned up and pushed into the outlet box.
  4. Separate grounded wires and ungrounded ones as did before.

Connect wires to the wall control

  1. Remove all wires from the switch.
  2. Black wires in the outlet box must be connected and green wires must be connected to the grounding wires from the wall control.
  3. Push all wire connections to the outlet box and separate grounded and black wires to different sides.
  4. Insert wall control also to the outlet box and screw it up.
  5. The switchplate cover must be installed with screws then.

How can I run a fan without a regulator?

you can run a fan without a regulator but you won't be able to increase or decrement the speed of a fan by changing the value of current which is the principle of a regulator.

How does a fan speed regulator work?
Assuming that the fan you are referring to is a single phase squirrel cage induction motor drive I am going to proceed.

The parameters which can be used for speed control of induction motor are mainly

Frequency of supply: Fan speed is directly proportional to frequency. But it is not practical as the frequency of our home supply is fixed( 50 or 60 Hz). It is used rarely in industries where variable frequency supply systems are available.

The number of poles inside the motor: Think of it as the number of electromagnets inside the motor if you are unfamiliar with the term poles. No. of poles can be changed by changing the winding connections which are also not practical for our domestic fan control.

Voltage Control: This is the most popular method of speed control of induction motor driven fans. As the name suggests it controls the voltage appearing across the fan terminals. Theoretically, fan torque is proportional to the square of the voltage applied. Popular three methods of voltage control are listed.

If you want to use your fan without a regulator, yes you can disconnect the regulator and use the fan directly, and then the fan will run at full speed. You will not have any control over its speed.

you can run a fan without a regulator but you won't be able to increase or decrease the speed of a fan.

The speed of the Fan can be slowed down simply by connecting a bulb or any other resistive load in series between the power supply and fan.

In this method, if the watt of connecting Load is increased then the speed of the Fan is also increased.

For example- if you connect a 100w bulb in series with a fan then the speed is slower than a 200w bulb connected in series. So if you want very less slow down then use a high watt load.

If you want to remove the fan regulator from your fan, call an electrician if you do have not enough knowledge about electricity safety during work.


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