WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology

Saturday, July 13, 2024

Bus-Bar Arrengement Design upto 400kV Capacity Substation

Typical Bus-Bar Arrangement System for High Voltage and Extra High voltage up to 400kV Capacity Substations.

Bus-Bar actually works as a matchmaker between higher voltage level transformers and lower voltage level transformers connecting others equipment to functional a co-relation between them.

The commonly used bus bar schemes for high voltage and extra high voltage at 132kV, 230kV, or 400kV Sub Stations are as below:
  1. Single bus bar;
  2. Main and Transfer bus bar;
  3. Double bus bar;
  4. Double main and transfer bus bar; 
  5. One and a half-breaker scheme.

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The schematic line diagram for the bus-Bar arrangement for each type of scheme is described below:

Single Bus-Bar Arrangement:

The single bus-bar arrangement is the simplest and easiest switching scheme in which each circuit is provided with one circuit breaker. 

This arrangement can ensure limited security against bus bar faults and no switching flexibility, as a result, go into quite extensive outages of bus-bar and frequent maintenance of bus bar isolators. 

In the single bus-bar scheme, in any bus-bar, isolator, or other equipment that needs maintenance or goes outage due to fault, the entire substation is lost or go in shutdown.

Another disadvantage of this switching scheme is that in case of maintenance of the circuit breaker, the associated feeder has also to be shut down.

Typical Single Bus-Bar Arrangement

Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar Arrangement:

To overcome the disadvantages of a single bus-bar arrangement, additionally, a bus-coupler circuit is arranged as an Auxiliary bus that can be used during the main bus maintenance period without de-energizing the circuit controlled by that breaker as that circuit then gets energized through bus coupler breaker.

Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar is technically a single bus bar arrangement with an additional bus bar called Auxiliary Bus energized from the main bus bars through a bus coupler circuit. 

This bus-bar scheme also suffers like a single bus-bar system in the event of a fault on the main bus bar or the associated isolator, the entire substation is lost. 

This type of arrangement is widely used for 132kV substations.

Typical Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar Arrangement

Double Bus-Bar Arrangement:

A Double Bus-Bar arrangement scheme is used to overcome the disadvantages of the single or main and auxiliary bus-bar schemes. The schematic diagram is shown below where each circuit can be connected to either one of these bus bars through the respective bus bar isolator. 

The advantage of the double bus-bar arrangement is such away that the circuits can be switched on from one bus to the other on load. 

This scheme suffers from the disadvantage that when any circuit breaker is taken out for maintenance, the associated feeder has to be shut down.

This bus-bar arrangement is widely used in 220kV or 230 kV substations.

Typical Double Bus-Bar Arrangement

Double Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar Arrangement:

Using the double main and auxiliary bus-bar scheme, it is possible to overcome the limitation of the double bus-bar scheme.

In Double Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar Arrangement, the feeder is transferred to the Auxiliary bus during maintenance of its controlling circuit breaker without affecting the other circuits.

This Bus bar arrangement is generally used nowadays in 220 or 230kV substations.

Typical Double Main and Auxiliary Bus-Bar arrangement

One-and-a-Half Breaker Arrangement:

In one and a half-breaker arrangement scheme three circuit breakers are used for controlling two circuits that are connected between two bus bars.

 Normally both bus bars are in operation if a fault occurs then the associated circuit breaker opens and the fault remove.

Easily any circuit breaker can be taken out in need of any maintenance without causing an interruption.

The main advantage is to load transfer is achieved through the breakers and, therefore, the operation is simple.

The one-and-a-half breaker arrangement is best for those substations which handle large quantities of power and where the orientation of outgoing feeders is in opposite directions.

This scheme has been used in the 400 kV substations.

Typical One and a Half Breaker Arrangement

Hope, you got the idea to select the arrangement for your bus-bar system.


PHOTO COLLECTION: Why Should You Use Image in Your Blog?

Why Should You Use Images in Your Blog?

Use a Good Image to Tell Your Story to Others People tend to respond better to visual cues, that’s why it’s important to use high qu...

Using images in your blog can have several benefits and enhance the overall quality of your content. Here are some reasons why you should consider incorporating images in your blog:

Visual Appeal: Images add visual appeal to your blog posts, making them more engaging and attractive to readers. A well-chosen image can grab attention, break up text-heavy content, and create a visually appealing layout.

Enhance Understanding: Images can help convey complex concepts or information more easily. They can act as visual aids to support your written content, making it easier for readers to understand and retain the information you are presenting.

Increase Readability: Large blocks of text can be overwhelming to readers. By incorporating images, you can break up the text and create a more visually pleasing layout. This improves readability and encourages readers to stay on your blog longer.

Emotional Connection: Images have the power to evoke emotions and create a connection with your readers. A compelling image can elicit an emotional response, making your content more memorable and relatable.

Improve SEO: Properly optimized images can help improve your blog's search engine optimization (SEO). By adding relevant keywords to image titles, alt tags, and descriptions, you can increase the chances of your blog post appearing in image search results, driving additional traffic to your site.

Social Media Sharing: Images are highly shareable on social media platforms. Including visually appealing images in your blog posts makes it more likely for readers to share your content on platforms like Pinterest, Instagram, and Facebook, increasing your reach and attracting more visitors to your blog.

Branding and Identity: Consistently using images that align with your brand's aesthetics and messaging can help establish a strong visual identity for your blog. It creates a cohesive and recognizable brand presence that resonates with your audience.

Remember to use high-quality images that are relevant to your content, properly attribute any sourced images, and optimize them for web use to ensure fast loading times. Be mindful of copyright laws and use royalty-free or Creative Commons-licensed images whenever necessary.

In summary, incorporating images in your blog can improve its visual appeal, enhance understanding, increase readability, evoke emotions, boost SEO, facilitate social media sharing, and contribute to your brand's identity.

Saturday, June 29, 2024

Cable Pulling & Jointing Tools and Equipment

Cable pulling, Jointing, and Termination equipment play very important roles to ensure quality work to operate a safe and long-life operation. Cable pulling tools make for easy and safe cable laying, less cable sheath or screen damage/scarce, applying pulling tension correctly, and spacing cable in trench or duct properly. Cable Joint and Termination tools are very much special for cable jointing and cable sealing end termination.

How Use Cable Pulling Tools & Prepare Cable Trench?

Before laying cable, cable trench or cable duct must prepare as per site requirement. Cable ducts or trench measurements will not same for all, depending on the voltage rating, cable size, laying location, and other vicinity factors cable ducts or trenches' depth and width vary.

Monday, June 24, 2024

How Vibration Damper Works in Transmission Line?

How Does a Small Size Damper Reduce Vibration in Transmission Lines?

Vibration dampers are usually used in high voltage and extra-high voltage electrical energy overhead transmission lines to handle aeolian and galloping or dancing vibrations in the transmission lines' conductors. The dampers are designed in such a way that they attenuate the line vibrations by reaching the same frequency as the cable that has wind-induced vibrations.

The overhead Transmission Line mainly experiences two types of vibrations in a vertical plane which can be categorized into two groups.

  • Aeolian Vibration;
  • Galloping or Dancing vibration.

Wednesday, May 8, 2024

Calculating the Resistance of a Wire


In many cases, we will know the length of a wire l and the AWG (American Wire Gauge) or 
SWG (British Standard Wire Gauge) or IEC standard size of the wire, but not the resistance. It's easy to calculate the resistance though.

Wikipedia has a list of AWG specifications available here, which includes the resistance per meter in Ohms per kilometer or milli Ohms per meter. They also have it per kilofeet or feet.


Underground High Voltage Power Cable Jointing, Bonding, and Earthing

The cable joints are basically used to connect low voltage, medium voltage, high voltage, and extra high voltage cables. All joints must provide electrical insulation as well as mechanical strength and protection. 

Cable joint sizes, shapes, and configurations may vary according to the voltage range, structure, insulation, and the number of cores of the cable to be jointed.
Schematic Diagram For Link Box
Cable Joint & Link Box Connection Schematic Diagram

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