What is the Advantages and Disadvantages of D.C. and A.C. Transmission System?

What is the Advantages and Disadvantages of D.C. (Direct Current) and A.C. (Alternating Current) Transmission System?
The electrical energy transmission can be transmitted either by means of DC- Direct Current or AC- AlternatingCurrent each system has its own advantages and disadvantages. From that point of view, we want to discuss today the technical advantages and disadvantages of the two electrical energy transmission systems for of electric power network.

D.C. Energy Transmission System
From the couple of years past, engineers in transmission sector are rethinking the DC electric transmission system. DC electric power transmission has been receiving the active consideration due to its numerous advantages as bellow:
Advantages of DC Electrical Energy Transmission System.
The high voltage DC energy transmission has the following advantages over the high voltage AC energy transmission system.

(i) DC system requires only two conductors comparing to three for AC transmission;

(ii) In DC trans…

Grounding, Earthing and Protection Against Lightning Procedure as Bangladesh Electricity Distribution Code

What says about Grounding , Eatrhing and Protection against Lightning on Bangladesh Electricity Code?
As per Annex G-04 Section 6 ERQ Distribution Code, the ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION CODE(UPDATED DRAFT) on November, 2012, Chapter 14 OVERHEAD LINES, UNDER GROUND CABLES AND GENERATING STATIONS, Clouse 15, 17 & 19 descrived about Grounding, Earthing and Protection against Lightning respectively.
Let's see the the detail step by step:

Guarding as per Bangladesh Electricity Distribution Code Where guarding is required under these clauses the provisions of 15(2) to (4) shall apply. Every guard-wire shall be connected with earth at each point at which its electrical continuity is broken. Every guard-wire shall have an actual breaking strength of not less than 635 kg and if made of iron or steel, shall be galvanized. Every guard-wire or cross-connected systems of guard-wires shall have sufficient current-carrying capacity to ensure the rendering dead, without risk of fusing of the guard-wi…


What Is IP- Ingress Protection RatingsWe are familiar with some protection symbol in our appliances and equipment as IP- like IP22, IP56, and IP64 so and so. But to most of us it’s not clear, what bearing the meaning is. Most commonly, we feel happy and secured if someone ensure it is waterproof. Similarly we also familiar with Water-tight, Rain-tight, Rain-proof, Dust-tight & Drip-tight etc. that makes our sense easily.
IP is shorten of Ingress Protection or ingress protection rating, sometime says International Protection rating. The letters IP contains two digit numerical number after the letters IP, sometimes one additional letter also uses to describe protection against mechanical impacts. IP or Ingress protection mainly uses for electrical enclosure or cabinet where electrical or electronic equipment are associated to prevent electrical shock to equipment users and save the equipment from the environment. IP Ingress Protection DegreesSponsored:

Each equipment has its own requir…

What Is The National Electric Grid of a Country?

What Is Meaning of National Grid?Grid means the high voltage backbone system of inter-connected transmission lines, substations and generating plants. Also known as the Transmission System
An electrical grid of a country is the interconnected whole electrical networkfor delivering electricity from generating unit to consumers' using point. 
The National Grid consists of Generating stations that produce electrical power, the high voltage transmission lines that carry electrical power to distant consumers' end from generating sources where many sources and transmission lines are inter connected in a comon network sysytem. 
You can find the another article about- Smart Grid Technology and Application

What Is The Grid Code?The Grid Code is one of the technical code for electricity connection and development of the National Electricity Transmission System of any country.
Grid Code means the set of rules, requirements, procedures approved by the authority covering all material technical…


What is Socket Outlet? Socket Outlet is a device with protected current carrying associates intended to be mounted in a fixed position or permanently connected to the fixed wiring of the installation.
The purpose of socket outlet installation with others accessories is to enable the connection a temporary load to it with a flexible cord or plug or flexible cable. Types of Socket Outlet ConnectionConsidering the location and requirements of wiring area, socket outlet wiring connection may be following three types:
Single Socket Connection;Radial Connection; andRing Circuit Connection.

Factors for Socket Outlet Wiring
Wiring cable sizes and maximum numbers of socket connection should be considered before design and install socket outlet. In any living room , bedroom or dining area, a ring main using 3 x 1.5 mm2 cable and 2 A x 3 Pin  sockets may be permitted if controlled by 5A with fuse unit in that room. The maximum number of 8 outlets may be allowed in any room by some authority.  It is im…

Why Parallel Operation of Transformer is Required ?

What is Parallel Operation of Transformer and Why Does it Required?Transformer Parallel Operation is means a multiple transformers with same characteristics operates using same voltage from a unique voltage source to supply the same level of voltage for a common load. In short the transformers in parallel operation are connected as primary windings are in a common voltage supply, and the secondary windings are in a common load. The simple parallel operation connection diagram of two transformers is shown in the figure above.
For supplying a larger load of the rating of an existing transformer A, a second or additional transformer B may be connected in parallel with existing transformer that is shown in above figure. 
You will find here that primary windings are connected to the supply bus bars and secondary windings are connected to the load bus-bars. In connecting two or multiple transformers in parallel, it is essential that their terminals of similar polarities are joined to the same…


How Do Make Earthing or Grounding For Equipment?
We know earthing/grounding is very vital part of electrical power transmission and distribution system; but how can we make earthing connection? Yes, to make the earthing system uniform we must follow some standards. Here in this article we will focus on IEC types of earthing system. What is Earthing or Grounding?a general term used to describe the connection of metallic parts of an Electrical Installation or an appliance to earth or ground is called Earthing or Earthed. Notable that the terms ‘Grounding’ or ‘Grounded’ are sometimes used to mean the same as the above. If you look at the most electrical power transmission and distribution system you will see several different three-phase voltage levels like-  400volts, 11000volts, 33000volts, 66000volts, 132000volts and so on.

Important point is that these all voltage levels of electricity coming from same source generator or transformer; but each level of voltage system is isolated from ea…