HVDC Transmission and Distribution System Network

HVDC Transmission and Distribution System Network

Transmission and Distribution of D.C. (Direct Current) Power

By the meaning of electrical power transmission and distribution is electrical energy generated in a central power station and carrying to the consumers end like- heavy industries, mill-factories, commercial zones, residential areas and so on through transmission and distribution transformers. from the central So far, there are two well known electric power transmission and distribution network systems:

(i) By overhead system; or 
(ii) By underground system.

Overhead power transmission is suitable and costs economic for long-distance and less populated or less obstructed rural or countryside areas.

Underground power transmission is the easiest way to distribute electric lines in cities or densely populated areas where overhead line construction is difficult. Comparing the overhead power transmission, the underground power transmission system is more costly.

In an overhead system, power is conveyed by bare conductors of copper or aluminium which are strung between wooden or steel poles erected at convenient distances along a route. 

The bare copper or aluminium wire is fixed to an insulator which is itself fixed onto a cross-arm on the pole. The number of cross-arms carried by a pole depends on the number of wires it has to carry. 

Line supports consist of (i) pole structures and (ii) tower. Poles which are made of wood, reinforced concrete or steel are used up to 33 kV whereas steel towers are used for higher voltages.

The underground system employs insulated cables which may be single, double or triple-core etc. A good system whether overhead or underground should fulfil the following requirements :

1. The voltage at the consumer’s premises must be maintained within ± 4 or ± 6% of the declared voltage, the actual value depending on the type of load.
2. The loss of power in the system itself should be a small percentage (about 10%) of the power transmitted.

3. The transmission cost should not be unduly excessive.

4. The maximum current passing through the conductor should be limited to such a value as not to overheat the conductor or damage its insulation.

5. The insulation resistance of the whole system should be very high so that there is no undue leakage or danger to human life.

You may be interrested to know: 

01. Advantages and Disadvantages of D.C. and A.C. Transmission System

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