WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Manufacture Of Electric Power Cables and Chronological Development

Sunday, November 4, 2018

Manufacture Of Electric Power Cables and Chronological Development

Underground Power Cable Installation

This Video Clip shows how installed underground power cable. 
This is not used modern equipment and technology.

You could see the initial technology for oilfield underground power cable and it's installation and erection procedure. 

Early to Latest Technology for Power Cable Manufacturing:

The telegraph line was the earliest device where people first think and establish to transmit electrical energy through underground cable.

Mr. Bruce S. Bernstein & William A. Thue quoted in the book of Historical Perspective of Electrical Cables as-
In 1812, Baron Schilling detonated a mine under the Neva River at St. Petersburg, Russia, by using an electrical pulse sent through a cable insulated with strips of India rubber. This is probably the earliest use of a continuously insulated conductor on record.  One of the earliest experiments with an underground cable was made by Francis Ronalds in 1816. This work was in conjunction with a system of telegraphy consisting of 500 feet of bare copper conductor drawn into glass tubes, joined together with sleeve joints and sealed with wax. The tubes were placed in a creosoted wooden trough buried in the ground. Ronalds was very enthusiastic over the success of this line, predicting that underground conductors would be widely used for electrical purposes and outlining many of the essential characteristics of a modern distribution system. 
Yes, 200 years earlier Mr. Ronalds was excited to be success on his idea; now today we are getting hi-tech cable manufacturing facilities, salute Mr. Ronalds’s dreams!  

Chronological Development of Cable System:


In 1837, W.R. Cooke and Charles Wheatstone laid an underground line along the railroad right-of-way between London’s Euston and Camden stations in London for telegraphy.

In 1842, S.F.B. Morse laid a cable insulated with jute, saturated in pitch, and covered with strips of India rubber between Governor’s Island and Castle Garden in New York harbor.

In 1842, Gutta-percha was introduced into Europe by Dr. W.Montgomery, and in 1846 was adopted on the recommendation of Dr. Werner Siemens for the telegraph line.

In 1860, vulcanized rubber was used for the first time as insulation for wires.

In 1882, of L. Gaulard and J.D. Gibbs who designed a crude alternating current system using induction coils as transformers.

In 1885, alternating current system was introduced into the United States by George Westinghouse.

In early 1886 an experimental installation went in service at Great Barrington, Massachusetts, (about 1,000V/200V).

In 1890, the first important line (10,000 volts) insulated with paper was installed by Ferranti in between Deptford and London.

In 1900 and after, start universal use of wood pulp paper in cables.

In 1914, introduction of the shielded design of multiple conductor cables by Martin Hochstadter.

In1925, the impregnating compound was changed from a rosin-based compound to a pure mineral oil circa.

In 1927, the patent by H.W.Fisher and R.W.Atkinson revealed that the dielectric strength of impregnated paper-insulated cable could be greatly increased by maintaining it under pressure.
In 1941, the polyethylene developed.

In 1947, PE was furnished cable insulation as 15 kV.

In the mid 1970s, a grade of tree-retardant polyethylene (TR-HMWPE) was introduced.

In 1975, extruded dielectric cables began.

In 1980, Jackets became increasingly popular,

In1980, EPR cables became more popular.

In 1981, the introduced of “dry cure” cables.

In 1982, the introduction of tree-resistant cross-linked polyethylene (TR-XLPE).

In 1983, the polybutene replaced the impregnating compound oil circa.

In 1984, the market was approximately 65 percent XLPE, 25 percent TR-XLPE and 10 percent EPR.
In 1995, the market was approximately 45 percent TRXLPE, 35 percent XLPE, and 20 percent EPR

Latest Technology is Using to Manufacture Power Cable: 


Nowadays cables are verity sizes and types for different uses which can carry up to 500 kilovolts. For power transmission from generation station to user end high voltage power cables are used, on the other hand low voltage or flexible power cables are used everyday life. Some special type cables are used for special purposes such as mineral insulated cables for burning protection, enamelled wires for motor/transformer winding, tinsel wires for telephone handset, cooker cables for asbestos insulation and so on.

Copper and  Aluminium are mainly used to power cable manufacture due to conductivity and economic prices. Many insulation materials have been used on different types of cables. The most common types are plastic materials, such as PVC, XLPE and EPR

Today, the technology needed to ensure an electrical cable stays in good working condition for long time without problems involves complicated manufacturing processes which require highly qualified man and machineries.

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