WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: MYSTERIOUS CORONA EFFECTS IN TRANSMISSION LINES

## Wednesday, November 27, 2019

### MYSTERIOUS CORONA EFFECTS IN TRANSMISSION LINES

 Fig-Corona Effect in Transmission Line Visible at Night

## What Is Corona Effects in Electrical Energy Transmission Line?

If you look along the high voltage power transmission line in a clear sky night, you will observe a dreamiest violet glow phenomenon embedded hissing noise along the transmission line conductors. This indefinable phenomenon causes nothing but a production of ozone gas surrounding on overhead electrical energy transmission lines is known as Corona or corona effect.

Usually you will find noticeable corona effects in EHV or Extra High Voltage transmission lines, like- 230kV, 400kV or higher grading. You may discover corona effects on normal voltages line if line overloaded or carry overestimated loads.

#### Theory and History of  Mysterious Corona

The mysterious corona factor equation was first derived by F.W. Peek and published in 1911. In a later a little modified from original the corona effect equation is published where he showed that the total amount of power loss in a wire due to the corona effect was equal to the equation as below:

where the parameter and the sample values are as below table:

ParameterSample Value
k0Fixed constant241
g0Disruptive Gradient in Air21.1 kv/cm
kdNormalized Air Density Factor
1 (25 °C, 76 cm pressure)
1
aRadius of Conductor3.5 cm (see Fig. 2)
dConductor Spacing1000 cm
fFrequency60 Hz
kiWire Irregularity Factor0.95 (weathered wires)
V0Line Voltage to Neutral
(1/1.73 x Voltage Between Conductors)
442 kV
(765 kV/1.73)
Disruptive Critical Voltage
(g0 ki a kd ln(d/a))
397 kv
Corona Loss kW/km/line25kW/km
Corona Loss %
(1000km line at 2.25 GW)
3.3%

### What is the Advantages and Disadvantages of Corona Effects?

The advantages of corona effects are- I) because of corona formation surrounding the conductor, virtually the conductor diameter becomes larger. As the diameter increases the electrostatic stress between the conductor decreases; ii) it reduces the surge voltage that created because of switching and thundering.

The disadvantages of corona effects on transmission lines are-

1. It reduces the transmission line’s efficiency;
2. Ozone created by this effect because corrosion of the conductors, health risk for human and animals;
3.  Due to corona effect non-sinusoidal voltage drop occurs across the line which causes inductive interference with neighboring communication lines, etc..

#### Features of Corona

• Conductor Size: The surface of the conductors decreases the breakdown voltage. Therefore, solid conductors are widely used for transmission lines;
• Line voltage: if the line voltage exceeding its limit or line become overloaded, a breakdown will occurs which creates Corona;
• Conductor’s spacing: To reduce corona more spacing is required between conductors;
• Atmospheric limitations: In Rainy, Foggy or Stormy weather Corona occurs at much less voltage at fair weather.

#### Factors Affecting Corona

The phenomenon of corona is affected by the physical state of the atmosphere as well as by the conditions of the line. The following are the factors upon which  coronadepends :

(i) Atmosphere: As corona is formed due to ionsiation of air surrounding the conductors, there fore, it is affected by the physical state of atmosphere. In the stormy weather, the number of ions is more than normal and as such corona occurs at much less voltage as compared with fair weather.

(ii) Conductor size: The corona effect depends upon the shape and conditions of the conductors. The rough and irregular surface will give rise to more corona because unevenness of the surface decreases the value of breakdown voltage. Thus a stranded conductor has ir regular surface and hence gives rise to more corona that a solid conductor.

(iii) Spacing between conductors: If the spacing between the conductors is made very large as compared to their diameters, there may not be any corona effect. It is because larger dis tance between conductors reduces the electro-static stresses at the conductor surface, thus avoiding corona formation.

(iv) Line voltage: The line voltage greatly affects corona. If it is low, there is no change in the condition of air surrounding the conductors and hence no corona is formed. However, if the line voltage has such a value that electrostatic stresses developed at the conductor surface make the air around the conductor conducting, then corona is formed.

### Difference between Corona Effect and Skin Effect in Electrical Energy Transmission Lines

Corona is an electrical discharge causes by a liquefied ionization surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Corona is an electrical discharge caused by electrical over stress on the conductor. Corona which produce spark is one of the power loss during transmission due to ionization of air surrounding the conductors.

Skin effect is the tendency of an AC or Alternating Current to become more distributed over the conductor skin than inside the conductor. As a result the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. Because of this case resistance of the alternating current carrying conductor increases which increases the power loss.

1. Corona treatment (sometimes referred to as air plasma) is a surface modification technique that uses a low temperature corona discharge plasma to impart changes in the properties of a surface. The corona plasma is generated by the application of high voltage to an electrode that has a sharp tip

2. Sources of Corona and Arcing in Polymer Insulators:
Loose hardware;
Contamination and surface tracking;
Missing corona rings;
Damaged or incorrectly installed corona ring;
Damaged end fittings or end fitting seal;
Exposed internal rod due to: Carbonized internal rod by internal discharges Split sheath due to weathering.

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