WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Voltage Drop Calculation for Electrical Power Cable

## What is Voltage Drop for Cable?

When current flows in a cable conductor a voltage drop is developed in between the ends of the conductor which is the product of flowing current and the impedance of the cable.

### Why Calculation Voltage Drop?

It is a common obligation for the designer to calculate the voltage drop as requirements are the main factor in determining the minimum conductor sizes (cross-sectional area) that can be used for a particular electrical circuit.

### How to Calculate Voltage Drop?

Calculating the voltage drop of a circuit the designer has two options to choose of them depending on the project requirements. These pretty two options are as below:

#### Accurate Design Approach

The simple design approach is a rough estimated one which sometimes leads to the use of larger conductor cross-sectional areas than are necessary for the project. If you consider a simple approach, then basically the following information is needed:
·
•     Type of cable;
•     Conductor cross-sectional area;
•     Method of installation (for AC circuits only);
•     Circuit route length;
•    Type of circuit (DC, single-phase AC or three-phase  AC);

#### Information is not needed for a simple approach:

•   Type and nominal current rating of the associated overcurrent device;
•   Ambient temperature;
•   Whether the circuit is run singly or grouped with other  circuits;
•    The power factor of the load.

On the other hand, an accurate design approach takes more into consideration conductor operating temperature. Above mentioned four “not needed information” for a simple approach should consider for a more accurate approach, especially two factors namely:

•    The ambient temperature
•    Whether the circuit is to be run singly or grouped with other circuits.

#### Calculate Voltage Drop Smartly:

We who work with cable system sometimes have to calculate voltage drop in short and very smartly. Considering this point of view following two formulas may be helpful for voltage drop calculation smartly.

#### Voltage Drop Calculation Formula for Single Phase Circuit:

Vd=2Il (R cos ø + X sin ø)  V

#### Voltage Drop Calculation Formula for Three Phase Circuit:

Vd=√ 3 I l (R cos ø + X sin ø)  V

Where
Vd = Voltage drop in Volt;
I = Load current in Amper;
R =A C Resistance in Ω/km;
X =Reactance in Ω/km;
cos ø = Power factor;
l  = Length in km;
X = ωL10-3
ω=2 π f
L = from table mh/km

The limit of voltage drop depends on national code and standards which vary from country to country, and hope we got some basic idea on Voltage Drop for Electrical Power Cable.