WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Filter for Electrical Plant

Thursday, October 19, 2023

Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Filter for Electrical Plant

Active & Passive Harmonic Filter
Active & Passive Harmonic Filter Diagram

What is a Harmonic Filter for Power Factor Correction in an Electrical Plant?

To ensure quality power supply in an electrical plant, Engineers know in mass the importance of Power Factor Correction equipment, and in advance Harmonic Resonance or Harmonic Filter.

The standard and essential term Power Factor Improvement (PFI) or power factor correction in the Electrical Engineering sect is denoted in another previous post as Electrical Power Factor in Schematic Diagram where Electrical Power Factor in Schematic Diagram and Bangladesh Electricity Distribution Code Published by Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission is described briefly. So, in this article, the Harmonic Filter is highlighted only.

Harmonics are currents and voltages that are continuous multiples of the fundamental frequency 50 Hz such as 100 Hz (2nd harmonic) and 250 Hz (5th harmonic). So, the harmonic filter is used to eliminate the harmonic distortion caused by loads.

How Does Harmonic Filter Work in an Electrical Plant?


The working principle of the Harmonic Filter is shown in the schematic line diagram below:

In Figure (Passive), an LC circuit is installed in parallel with the non-linear load to tune and filter each harmonic in order. This bypass circuit absorbs harmonics and avoids their flow in the distribution network.

In Figure (Active), a parallel-connected active harmonic conditioner (AHC) compensates for the harmonic current or voltage drawn by the load.

Where to Install the Harmonic Filter in an Electrical Plant?

In Electrical Engineering, harmonics occur in equipment because of the fluctuations in the voltage or current. The propagation of harmonic frequencies in the electrical equipment degrades the power supply quality, ultimately electricity users lose the electric bill and the utility losers because of equipment performance.

To ensure optimum power quality in industries such as metal processing plants, automotive plants, oil & gas industries, information technology- IT & data centers, and other similar big plants, utility company representatives suggest using harmonic filters.

How to Differentiate Harmonic Filter Segments?

Based on type, the harmonic filter is mainly segmented into active harmonic filters and passive harmonic filters. Further Passive Harmonic filters are bifurcated into tuned passive and de-tuned passive filters;

Based on voltage level, the harmonic filter is classified into three segments, namely: low voltage harmonic filters, normal voltage harmonic filters, and high voltage harmonic filters. 

So, at a glance, we can find the harmonic filter segment below:

By Types:
Active Harmonic Filters; &
Passive Harmonic Filters.

Tuned Passive Harmonic Filters; &

De-Tuned Passive Harmonic Filters.

By voltage level:
Low Voltage Harmonic Filters;
normal Voltage Harmonic Filters; &
High Voltage Harmonic Filters.
Who Is the Harmonic Filter Manufacturer & User?

The major harmonic filter users of the world are in North America, the U.K., Germany, China, India, Japan, the Middle East & North Africa (MENA), Latin America & the Rest of APAC.

Manufacturer-the harmonic filter major manufacturers in the world are- ABB Ltd. (Switzerland), Baron Power Limited (India), Comsys AB (Sweden), Danfoss A/S (Denmark), Schneider Electric (France), Eaton Corporation Plc. (Ireland), Siemens AG (Germany), Crompton Greaves Limited (India), Emerson Electric Co. (U.S.), TDK Corporation (Japan), Schaffner Holding AG (Switzerland), MTE Corporation (U.S.) etc.

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