## What Should Know as an Electrical Engineer?

**1. Electric Current and Ohm’s Law**

Electron Drift Velocity;

Charge Velocity and Velocity of Field Propagation;

The Idea of Electric Potential;

Resistance;

Unit of Resistance;

Law of Resistance;

Units of Resistivity;

Conductance and Conductivity;

Effect of Temperature on Resistance;

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance;

Value of at Different Temperatures;

Variation of Resistivity with Temperature;

Ohm’s Law;

Resistance in Series;

Voltage Divider Rule;

Resistance;

in Parallel;

Types of Resistors;

Nonlinear Resistors;

Varistor;

Short and Open Circuits;

‘Shorts’ in a Series Circuit;

‘Opens’ in Series Circuit;

‘Open’s in a Parallel Circuit;

‘Shorts’ in Parallel Circuits;

Division of Current in Parallel Circuits;

Equivalent Resistance;

Duality Between Series and Parallel Circuits;

Relative Potential;

Voltage Divider Circuits.

**2. DC Network Theorems**

Electric Circuits and Network Theorems;

Kirchhoff’s Laws;

Determination of Voltage Sign;

Assumed Direction of Current;

Solving Simultaneous Equations;

Determinants;

Solving Equations with Two Unknowns;

Solving Equations With Three Unknowns;

Independent and Dependent Sources;

Maxwell’s Loop Current Method;

Mesh Analysis Using Matrix Form;

Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources;

Nodal Analysis with Current Sources;

Source Conversion;

Ideal Constant-Voltage Source;

Ideal Constant-Current Source;

Superposition Theorem;

Thevenin Theorem;

How to Thevenize a Given Circuit?

General Instructions for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit; Reciprocity Theorem;

Delta/Star Transformation;

Star/DeltaTransformation;

Compensation Theorem;

Norton’s Theorem;

How to Nortanize a Given Circuit?

General Instructions for Finding Norton Equivalent Circuit;

Millman’s Theorem;

Generalised Form of Millman's Theorem;

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem;

Power Transfer Efficiency.

**3. Work, Power and Energy**

Effect of Electric Current;

Joule’s Law of Electric Heating;

Thermal Efficiency;

S-I. Units;

Calculation of Kilo-watt Power of a Hydroelectric Station.

**4. Electrostatics**

Static Electricity;

Absolute and Relative Permittivity of a Medium;

Laws of Electrostatics;

Electric Field;

Electrostatic Induction;

Electric Flux and Faraday Tubes;

Field Strength or Field Intensity or Electric Intensity (E);

Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement (D);

Gauss Law;

The Equations of Poisson and Laplace;

Electric Potential and Energy;

Potential and Potential Difference;

The potential at a Point;

Potential of a Charged Sphere;

Equipotential Surfaces;

Potential and Electric Intensity;

Inside a Conducting Sphere;

Potential Gradient;

Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength;

The factor of Dielectric;

Boundary Conditions.

**5. Capacitance**

Capacitor;

Capacitance;

The capacitance of an Isolated Sphere;

Spherical Capacitor;

Parallel-plate Capacitor;

Special Cases of Parallel-plate Capacitor;

Multiple and Variable Capacitors;

Cylindrical Capacitor;

Potential Gradient in Cylindrical Capacitor;

Capacitance Between two Parallel Wires;

Capacitors in Series;

Capacitors in Parallel;

Cylindrical Capacitor with Compound Dielectric;

Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor;

Energy Stored in a Capacitor;

The force of Attraction Between Oppositely-charged Plates;

Current-Voltage Relationships in a Capacitor;

Charging of a Capacitor;

Time Constant;

Discharging of a Capacitor;

Transient Relations during Capacitor Charging Cycle;

Transient Relations during Capacitor Discharging Cycle;

Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor with Initial Charge.

**6. Magnetism and Electromagnetism**

Absolute and Relative Permeabilities of a Medium;

Laws of Magnetic Force;

Magnetic Field Strength (H);

Magnetic Potential;

The flux per Unit Pole;

Flux Density (B);

Absolute Permeability (m) and Relative Permeability (mr);

The intensity of Magnetisation (I);

Susceptibility (K);

Relation Between B, H, I and K;

Boundary Conditions;

Weber and Ewing’s Molecular Theory;

Curie Point. Force on a Current-carrying Conductor Lying in a Magnetic Field;

Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s Circuital Law;

Biot-Savart Law;

Application of Biot;

Savart Law;

Force Between Two Parallel Conductors;

The magnitude of Mutual Force;

Definition of Ampere;

Magnetic Circuit Definitions;

Composite Series Magnetic Circuit;

How to Find Ampere-turns?

Comparison Between Magnetic and Electric Circuits;

Parallel Magnetic Circuits;

Series-Parallel Magnetic Circuits;

Leakage Flux and Hopkinson’s Leakage Coefficient;

Magnetisation Curves;

Magnetisation curves by Ballistic Galvanometer;

Magnetisation Curves by Fluxmete—Objective Tests.

**7. Electromagnetic Induction**

Relation Between Magnetism and Electricity;

Production of Induced E.M.F. and Current;

Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction;

The direction of Induced E.M.F. and Current;

Lenz’s Law;

Induced E.M.F.;

Dynamically-induced E.M.F.;

Statically-induced E.M.F.;

Self-Inductance;

Coefficient of Self-Inductance (L);

Mutual Inductance;

Coefficient of Mutual Inductance (M);

Coefficient of Coupling—Inductances in Series;

Inductances in Parallel.

**8. Magnetic Hysteresis**

Magnetic Hysteresis;

Area of Hysteresis Loop;

Properties and Application of Ferromagnetic Materials;

Permanent Magnet Materials;

Steinmetz Hysteresis Law;

Energy Stored in Magnetic Field;

Rate of Change of Stored Energy;

Energy Stored per Unit Volume;

Lifting Power of Magnet;

Rise of Current in Inductive Circuit;

The decay of Current in Inductive Circuit;

Details of Transient Current Rise in R-L Circuit;

Details of Transient Current Decay in R-L Circuit;

Automobile Ignition System.

**9. Electrochemical Power Sources**

Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis;

Polarisation or Back e.m.f.;

Value of Back e.m.f.;

Primary and Secondary Batteries;

Classification of Secondary Batteries base on their Use;

Classification of Lead Storage Batteries;

Parts of a Lead-acid Battery;

Active Materials of Lead-acid Cells;

Chemical Changes;

Formation of Plates of Lead-acid Cells;

Plante Process;

Structure of Plante Plates;

Faure Process;

Positive Pasted Plates;

Negative Pasted Plates;

Structure of Faure Plates;

Comparison: Plante and Faure Plates;

Internal Resistance and Capacity of a Cell;

Two Efficiencies of the Cell;

Electrical Characteristics of the Lead-acid Cell;

Battery Ratings;

Indications of a Fully-Charged Cell;

Application of Lead-acid Batteries;

Voltage Regulators;

End-cell Control System;

Number of End-cells;

Charging Systems;

Constant-current System;

Constant-voltage System;

Trickle Charging;

Sulphation-Causes and Cure;

Maintenance of Lead-acid Cells;

Mains operated Battery Chargers;

Car Battery Charger;

Automobile Battery Charger;

Static Uninterruptable Power Systems;

Alkaline Batteries;

Nickel-iron or Edison Batteries;

Chemical

Changes;

Electrical Characteristics;

Nickel-Cadmium Batteries;

Chemical Changes;

Comparison: Lead-acid and Edison Cells;

Silver-zinc Batteries;

High-Temperature Batteries;

Secondary Hybrid Cells;

Fuel Cells;

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cells;

Batteries for Aircraft;

Batteries for Submarines.

**10. Electrical Instruments and Measurements**

Classification of AC Motors;

Induction Motor: General Principal;

Construction Squirrel-cage Rotor;

Phase-wound Rotor;

Production of Rotating Field;

Three-phase Supply;

Mathematical Proof;

Why does the Rotor Rotate?

Slip;

Frequency of Rotor Current;

The relation between Torque and Rotor Power Factor;

Starting Torque;

Starting Torque of a Squirrel-cage Motor;

Starting Torque of a Slip-ring Motor;

Condition for Maximum Starting Torque;

Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Starting Torque;

Rotor E.M.F and Reactance under Running Conditions;

Torque under Running Condition;

Condition for Maximum Torque Under Running Conditions;

Rotor Torque and Breakdown Torque;

The relation between Torque and Slip;

Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Torque

and Speed;

Effect of Change in Supply Frequency Torque

and Speed;

Full-load Torque and Maximum Torque;

Starting Torque and Maximum Torque;

Torque/Speed Curve;

The shape of the Torque/Speed Curve;

Current/Speed Curve of an Induction Motor;

Torque/Speed Characteristic Under Load;

Plugging of an Induction Motor;

Induction Motor Operating as a Generator;

Complete Torque/Speed Curve of a Three-phase Machine;

Measurement of Slip;

Power Stages in an Induction Motor;

Torque Developed by an Induction Motor;

Torque, Mechanical Power and Rotor Output;

Induction Motor Torque Equation;

Synchronous Watt;

Variation in Rotor Current;

The analogy with a Mechanical Clutch;

The analogy with a D.C. Motor;

Sector Induction Motor;

Linear Induction Motor;

Properties of a Linear Induction Motor;

Magnetic Levitation;

Induction Motor as a Generalized Transformer;

Rotor Output;

Equivalent Circuit of the Rotor;

Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor;

Power Balance Equation;

Maximum Power Output;

Corresponding Slip.

**11. A.C. Fundamentals**

Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents;

Equations of the Alternating Voltages and Currents;

Alternate Method for the Equations of Alternating Voltages and currents;

Simple Waveforms;

Complex Waveforms;

Cycle;

Time-Period;

Frequency;

Amplitude;

Different Forms of E.M.F. Equation;

Phase;

Phase Difference;

Root Mean Square (R.M.S.) Value;

Mid-ordinate Method;

Analytical Method;

R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave;

Average Value;

Form Factor;

Crest or Peak Factor;

R.M.S. Value of H.W. Rectified A.C.;

Average Value;

Form Factor of H.W. Rectified;

Representation of Alternating Quantities;

Vector Diagrams Using R.M.S. Values;

Vector Diagrams of Sine Waves of Same Frequency;

Addition of Two Alternating Quantities;

Addition and Subtraction of Vectors;

A.C. Through Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance;

A.C. through Pure Ohmic Resistance alone;

A.C. through Pure Inductance alone;

Complex Voltage Applied to Pure Inductance;

A.C. through Capacitance alone.

**12. Complex Numbers**

Mathematical Representation of Vectors;

Symbolic Notation;

Significance of Operator j;

Conjugate Complex Numbers;

Trigonometrical Form of Vector;

Exponential Form of Vector;

Polar Form of Vector Representation;

Addition and Subtraction of Vector Quantities;

Multiplication and Division of Vector Quantities;

Power and Root of Vectors;

The 120° Operator.

**13. Series A.C. Circuits**

A.C. through Resistance and Inductance;

Power Factor;

Active and Reactive Components of Circuit Current-I;

Active, Reactive and Apparent Power;

Q-factor of a Coil;

Power in an Iron-cored Chocking Coil;

A.C.Through Resistance and Capacitance;

Dielectric Loss and Power Factor of a Capacitor;

Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in Series;

Resonance in R-L-C Circuits;

Graphical Representation of Resonance;

Resonance Curve;

Half-power Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit;

Bandwidth B at any Off-resonance Frequency;

Determination of Upper and Lower Half-Power Frequencies;

Values of Edge Frequencies;

Q-Factor of a Resonant Series Circuit;

Circuit Current at Frequencies Other than Resonant Frequencies;

Relation Between Resonant Power P0 and Off-resonant Power P.

**14. Parallel A.C. Circuits**

Solving Parallel Circuits;

Vector or Phasor Method;

Admittance Method;

Application of Admittance Method;

Complex or Phasor Algebra;

Series-Parallel Circuits;

Series Equivalent of a Parallel Circuit;

Parallel Equivalent of a Series Circuit;

Resonance in Parallel Circuits;

Graphic Representation of Parallel Resonance;

Points to Remember;

The bandwidth of a Parallel Resonant Circuit;

Q-factor of a Parallel Circuit.

**15. A.C. Network Analysis**

Kirchhoff's Laws;

Mesh Analysis;

Nodal Analysis;

Superposition Theorem;

Thevenin’s Theorem;

Reciprocity Theorem;

Norton’s Theorem;

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem-Millman’s Theorem.

**16. A.C. Bridges**

A.C. Bridges;

Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge;

Maxwell-Wien Bridge;

Anderson Bridge;

Hay’s Bridge;

The Owen Bridge;

Heaviside Campbell Equal Ratio Bridge;

Capacitance Bridge;

De Sauty Bridge;

Schering Bridge;

Wien Series Bridge;

Wien Parallel Bridge.

**17. A.C. Filter Networks**

Applications of Filter Networks;

Different Types of Filters;

Octaves and Decades of frequency;

Decibel System;

Value of 1 dB;

Low-Pass RC Filter;

Other Types of Low-Pass Filters;

Low-Pass RL Filter;

High-Pass R C Filter;

High Pass R L Filter;

R-C Bandpass Filter;

R-C Bandstop Filter;

The-3 dB Frequencies;

Roll-off of the Response Curve;

Bandstop and Bandpass Resonant Filter Circuits;

Series-and Parallel-Resonant Bandstop Filters;

Parallel-Resonant Bandstop Filter;

Series-Resonant Bandpass Filter;

Parallel-Resonant Bandpass Filter.

**18. Circle Diagrams**

Circle Diagram of a Series Circuit;

Rigorous Mathematical Treatment;

Constant Resistance but Variable Reactance;

Properties of Constant Reactance But Variable Resistance Circuit;

Simple Transmission Line Circuit.

**19. Polyphase Circuits**

Generation of Polyphase Voltages;

Phase Sequence;

Phases Sequence At Load;

The numbering of Phases;

Interconnection of Three Phases;

Star or Wye (Y) Connection;

Values of Phase Currents;

Voltages and Currents in Y-Connection;

Delta (D) or Mesh Connection;

Balanced Y/D and D/Y Conversions;

Star and Delta Connected Lighting Loads;

Power Factor Improvement;

Power Correction Equipment;

Parallel Loads;

Power Measurement in 3-phase Circuits;

Three Wattmeter Method;

Two Wattmeter Method;

Balanced or Unbalanced load;

Two Wattmeter Method-Balanced Load;

Variations in Wattmeter Readings;

Leading Power Factor;

Power Factor-Balanced Load;

Balanced Load-LPF;

Reactive Voltamperes with One Wattmeter;

One Wattmeter Method;

Copper Required for Transmitting Power Under Fixed Conditions; Double Subscript Notation;

Unbalanced Loads;

Unbalanced D-connected Load;

Four-wire Star-connected Unbalanced Load;

Unbalanced Y-connected Load Without Neutral;

Millman’s Theorem;

Application of Kirchhoff's Laws;

Delta/Star and Star/Delta Conversions;

Unbalanced Star-connected Non-inductive Load;

Phase Sequence Indicators.

**20. Harmonics**

Fundamental Wave and Harmonics;

Different Complex Waveforms;

General Equation of a Complex Wave;

R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave;

Form Factor of a Complex Wave;

Power Supplied by a Complex Wave;

Harmonics in Single-phase A.C Circuits;

Selective Resonance Due to Harmonics;

Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance;

Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems;

Harmonics in Single and 3-Phase Transformer.

**21. Fourier Series**

Harmonic Analysis;

Periodic Functions;

Trigonometric Fourier Series;

Alternate Forms of Trigonometric Fourier Series;

Certain Useful Integral Calculus Theorems;

Evaluation of Fourier Constants;

Different Types of Functional Symmetries;

Line or Frequency Spectrum;

Procedure for Finding the Fourier Series of a Given Function;

Wave Analyzer;

Spectrum Analyzer;

Fourier Analyzer;

Harmonic Synthesis.

**22. Transients**

What is Transients;

Types of Transients;

Important Differential Equations;

Transients in R-L Circuits (D.C.);

Short Circuit Current;

Time Constant;

Transients in R-L Circuits (A.C.);

Transients in R-C Series Circuits (D.C.);

Transients in R-C Series Circuits (A.C);

Double Energy Transients.

**23. Symmetrical Components**

The Positive-sequence Components;

The Negative-sequence Components;

The Zero-sequence Components;

Graphical Composition of Sequence Vectors;

Evaluation of VA1 or V1;

Evaluation of VA2 or V2;

Evaluation VA0 or V0;

Zero Sequence Components of Current and Voltage;

Unbalanced Star Load form Unbalanced Three-phase Three-Wire System;

Unbalanced Star Load Supplied from Balanced Three-phase Three-wire System;

Measurement of Symmetrical Components of Circuits;

Measurement of Positive and Negative-sequence Voltages;

Measurement of Zero- sequence Component of Voltage.

**24. Introduction to Electrical Energy Generation**

Preference for Electricity;

Comparison of Sources of Power;

Sources for Generation of Electricity;

Brief Aspects of Electrical Energy Systems;

Utility and Consumers;

Why is the Three-phase A.C. system Most Popular?;

Cost of Generation;

Staggering of Loads during peak-demand Hours;

Classifications of Power Transmission;

Selecting A.C. Transmission Voltage for a Particular Case; Conventional Sources of Electrical Energy;

Steam Power Stations (Coal-fired);

Nuclear Power Stations;

Advantages of Nuclear Generation;

Disadvantages of Nuclear Generation;

Hydroelectric Generation;

Non-Conventional Energy Sources;

Photo Voltaic Cells (P.V. Cells or SOLAR Cells);

Fuel Cells;

Principle of Operation;

Chemical Process (with Acidic Electrolyte);

Schematic Diagram;

Array for Large outputs;

High Lights;

Wind Power.

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