WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Engineering: Electrical and Electronic

Friday, March 4, 2022

Engineering: Electrical and Electronic

What Should Know as an Electrical Engineer?

1. Electric Current and Ohm’s Law
Electron Drift Velocity;
Charge Velocity and Velocity of Field Propagation;
The Idea of Electric Potential;
Unit of Resistance;
Law of Resistance;
Units of Resistivity;
Conductance and Conductivity;
Effect of Temperature on Resistance;
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance;
Value of at Different Temperatures;
Variation of Resistivity with Temperature;
Ohm’s Law;
Resistance in Series;
Voltage Divider Rule;
in Parallel;
Types of Resistors;
Nonlinear Resistors;
Short and Open Circuits;
‘Shorts’ in a Series Circuit;
‘Opens’ in Series Circuit;
‘Open’s in a Parallel Circuit;
‘Shorts’ in Parallel Circuits;
Division of Current in Parallel Circuits;
Equivalent Resistance;
Duality Between Series and Parallel Circuits;
Relative Potential;
Voltage Divider Circuits.

2. DC Network Theorems 
Electric Circuits and Network Theorems;
Kirchhoff’s Laws;
Determination of Voltage Sign;
Assumed Direction of Current;
Solving Simultaneous Equations;
Solving Equations with Two Unknowns;
Solving Equations With Three Unknowns;
Independent and Dependent Sources;
Maxwell’s Loop Current Method;
Mesh Analysis Using Matrix Form;
Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources;
Nodal Analysis with Current Sources;
Source Conversion;
Ideal Constant-Voltage Source;
Ideal Constant-Current Source;
Superposition Theorem;
Thevenin Theorem;
How to Thevenize a Given Circuit?
General Instructions for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit; Reciprocity Theorem;
Delta/Star Transformation;
Compensation Theorem;
Norton’s Theorem;
How to Nortanize a Given Circuit?
General Instructions for Finding Norton Equivalent Circuit;
Millman’s Theorem;
Generalised Form of Millman's Theorem;
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem;
Power Transfer Efficiency.

3. Work, Power and Energy
Effect of Electric Current;
Joule’s Law of Electric Heating;
Thermal Efficiency;
S-I. Units;
Calculation of Kilo-watt Power of a Hydroelectric Station.

4. Electrostatics
Static Electricity;
Absolute and Relative Permittivity of a Medium;
Laws of Electrostatics;
Electric Field;
Electrostatic Induction;
Electric Flux and Faraday Tubes;
Field Strength or Field Intensity or Electric Intensity (E);
Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement (D);
Gauss Law;
The Equations of Poisson and Laplace;
Electric Potential and Energy;
Potential and Potential Difference;
The potential at a Point;
Potential of a Charged Sphere;
Equipotential Surfaces;
Potential and Electric Intensity;
Inside a Conducting Sphere;
Potential Gradient;
Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength;
The factor of Dielectric;
Boundary Conditions.

5. Capacitance 
The capacitance of an Isolated Sphere;
Spherical Capacitor;
Parallel-plate Capacitor;
Special Cases of Parallel-plate Capacitor;
Multiple and Variable Capacitors;
Cylindrical Capacitor;
Potential Gradient in Cylindrical Capacitor;
Capacitance Between two Parallel Wires;
Capacitors in Series;
Capacitors in Parallel;
Cylindrical Capacitor with Compound Dielectric;
Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor;
Energy Stored in a Capacitor;
The force of Attraction Between Oppositely-charged Plates;
Current-Voltage Relationships in a Capacitor;
Charging of a Capacitor;
Time Constant;
Discharging of a Capacitor;
Transient Relations during Capacitor Charging Cycle;
Transient Relations during Capacitor Discharging Cycle;
Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor with Initial Charge.

6. Magnetism and Electromagnetism
Absolute and Relative Permeabilities of a Medium;
Laws of Magnetic Force;
Magnetic Field Strength (H);
Magnetic Potential;
The flux per Unit Pole;
Flux Density (B);
Absolute Permeability (m) and Relative Permeability (mr);
The intensity of Magnetisation (I);
Susceptibility (K);
Relation Between B, H, I and K;
Boundary Conditions;
Weber and Ewing’s Molecular Theory;
Curie Point. Force on a Current-carrying Conductor Lying in a Magnetic Field;
Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s Circuital Law;
Biot-Savart Law;
Application of Biot;
Savart Law;
Force Between Two Parallel Conductors;
The magnitude of Mutual Force;
Definition of Ampere;
Magnetic Circuit Definitions;
Composite Series Magnetic Circuit;
How to Find Ampere-turns?
Comparison Between Magnetic and Electric Circuits;
Parallel Magnetic Circuits;
Series-Parallel Magnetic Circuits;
Leakage Flux and Hopkinson’s Leakage Coefficient;
Magnetisation Curves;
Magnetisation curves by Ballistic Galvanometer;
Magnetisation Curves by Fluxmete—Objective Tests.

7. Electromagnetic Induction
Relation Between Magnetism and Electricity;
Production of Induced E.M.F. and Current;
Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction;
The direction of Induced E.M.F. and Current;
Lenz’s Law;
Induced E.M.F.;
Dynamically-induced E.M.F.;
Statically-induced E.M.F.;
Coefficient of Self-Inductance (L);
Mutual Inductance;
Coefficient of Mutual Inductance (M);
Coefficient of Coupling—Inductances in Series;
Inductances in Parallel.

8. Magnetic Hysteresis
Magnetic Hysteresis;
Area of Hysteresis Loop;
Properties and Application of Ferromagnetic Materials;
Permanent Magnet Materials;
Steinmetz Hysteresis Law;
Energy Stored in Magnetic Field;
Rate of Change of Stored Energy;
Energy Stored per Unit Volume;
Lifting Power of Magnet;
Rise of Current in Inductive Circuit;
The decay of Current in Inductive Circuit;
Details of Transient Current Rise in R-L Circuit;
Details of Transient Current Decay in R-L Circuit;
Automobile Ignition System.

9. Electrochemical Power Sources 
Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis;
Polarisation or Back e.m.f.;
Value of Back e.m.f.;
Primary and Secondary Batteries;
Classification of Secondary Batteries base on their Use;
Classification of Lead Storage Batteries;
Parts of a Lead-acid Battery;
Active Materials of Lead-acid Cells;
Chemical Changes;
Formation of Plates of Lead-acid Cells;
Plante Process;
Structure of Plante Plates;
Faure Process;
Positive Pasted Plates;
Negative Pasted Plates;
Structure of Faure Plates;
Comparison: Plante and Faure Plates;
Internal Resistance and Capacity of a Cell;
Two Efficiencies of the Cell;
Electrical Characteristics of the Lead-acid Cell;
Battery Ratings;
Indications of a Fully-Charged Cell;
Application of Lead-acid Batteries;
Voltage Regulators;
End-cell Control System;
Number of End-cells;
Charging Systems;
Constant-current System;
Constant-voltage System;
Trickle Charging;
Sulphation-Causes and Cure;
Maintenance of Lead-acid Cells;
Mains operated Battery Chargers;
Car Battery Charger;
Automobile Battery Charger;
Static Uninterruptable Power Systems;
Alkaline Batteries;
Nickel-iron or Edison Batteries;
Electrical Characteristics;
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries;
Chemical Changes;
Comparison: Lead-acid and Edison Cells;
Silver-zinc Batteries;
High-Temperature Batteries;
Secondary Hybrid Cells;
Fuel Cells;
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cells;
Batteries for Aircraft;
Batteries for Submarines. 

10. Electrical Instruments and Measurements
Classification of AC Motors;
Induction Motor: General Principal;
Construction Squirrel-cage Rotor;
Phase-wound Rotor;
Production of Rotating Field;
Three-phase Supply;
Mathematical Proof;
Why does the Rotor Rotate?
Frequency of Rotor Current;
The relation between Torque and Rotor Power Factor;
Starting Torque;
Starting Torque of a Squirrel-cage Motor;
Starting Torque of a Slip-ring Motor;
Condition for Maximum Starting Torque;
Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Starting Torque;
Rotor E.M.F and Reactance under Running Conditions;
Torque under Running Condition;
Condition for Maximum Torque Under Running Conditions;
Rotor Torque and Breakdown Torque;
The relation between Torque and Slip;
Effect of Change in Supply Voltage on Torque
and Speed;
Effect of Change in Supply Frequency Torque
and Speed;
Full-load Torque and Maximum Torque;
Starting Torque and Maximum Torque;
Torque/Speed Curve;
The shape of the Torque/Speed Curve;
Current/Speed Curve of an Induction Motor;
Torque/Speed Characteristic Under Load;
Plugging of an Induction Motor;
Induction Motor Operating as a Generator;
Complete Torque/Speed Curve of a Three-phase Machine;
Measurement of Slip;
Power Stages in an Induction Motor;
Torque Developed by an Induction Motor;
Torque, Mechanical Power and Rotor Output;
Induction Motor Torque Equation;
Synchronous Watt;
Variation in Rotor Current;
The analogy with a Mechanical Clutch;
The analogy with a D.C. Motor;
Sector Induction Motor;
Linear Induction Motor;
Properties of a Linear Induction Motor;
Magnetic Levitation;
Induction Motor as a Generalized Transformer;
Rotor Output;
Equivalent Circuit of the Rotor;
Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor;
Power Balance Equation;
Maximum Power Output;
Corresponding Slip.

11. A.C. Fundamentals
Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents;
Equations of the Alternating Voltages and Currents;
Alternate Method for the Equations of Alternating Voltages and currents;
Simple Waveforms;
Complex Waveforms;
Different Forms of E.M.F. Equation;
Phase Difference;
Root Mean Square (R.M.S.) Value;
Mid-ordinate Method;
Analytical Method;
R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave;
Average Value;
Form Factor;
Crest or Peak Factor;
R.M.S. Value of H.W. Rectified A.C.;
Average Value;
Form Factor of H.W. Rectified;
Representation of Alternating Quantities;
Vector Diagrams Using R.M.S. Values;
Vector Diagrams of Sine Waves of Same Frequency;
Addition of Two Alternating Quantities;
Addition and Subtraction of Vectors;
A.C. Through Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance;
A.C. through Pure Ohmic Resistance alone;
A.C. through Pure Inductance alone;
Complex Voltage Applied to Pure Inductance;
A.C. through Capacitance alone.

12. Complex Numbers 
Mathematical Representation of Vectors;
Symbolic Notation;
Significance of Operator j;
Conjugate Complex Numbers;
Trigonometrical Form of Vector;
Exponential Form of Vector;
Polar Form of Vector Representation;
Addition and Subtraction of Vector Quantities;
Multiplication and Division of Vector Quantities;
Power and Root of Vectors;
The 120° Operator.

13. Series A.C. Circuits
A.C. through Resistance and Inductance;
Power Factor;
Active and Reactive Components of Circuit Current-I;
Active, Reactive and Apparent Power;
Q-factor of a Coil;
Power in an Iron-cored Chocking Coil;
A.C.Through Resistance and Capacitance;
Dielectric Loss and Power Factor of a Capacitor;
Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in Series;
Resonance in R-L-C Circuits;
Graphical Representation of Resonance;
Resonance Curve;
Half-power Bandwidth of a Resonant Circuit;
Bandwidth B at any Off-resonance Frequency;
Determination of Upper and Lower Half-Power Frequencies;
Values of Edge Frequencies;
Q-Factor of a Resonant Series Circuit;
Circuit Current at Frequencies Other than Resonant Frequencies;
Relation Between Resonant Power P0 and Off-resonant Power P.

14. Parallel A.C. Circuits
Solving Parallel Circuits;
Vector or Phasor Method;
Admittance Method;
Application of Admittance Method;
Complex or Phasor Algebra;
Series-Parallel Circuits;
Series Equivalent of a Parallel Circuit;
Parallel Equivalent of a Series Circuit;
Resonance in Parallel Circuits;
Graphic Representation of Parallel Resonance;
Points to Remember;
The bandwidth of a Parallel Resonant Circuit;
Q-factor of a Parallel Circuit.

15. A.C. Network Analysis 
Kirchhoff's Laws;
Mesh Analysis;
Nodal Analysis;
Superposition Theorem;
Thevenin’s Theorem;
Reciprocity Theorem;
Norton’s Theorem;
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem-Millman’s Theorem.

16. A.C. Bridges 
A.C. Bridges;
Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge;
Maxwell-Wien Bridge;
Anderson Bridge;
Hay’s Bridge;
The Owen Bridge;
Heaviside Campbell Equal Ratio Bridge;
Capacitance Bridge;
De Sauty Bridge;
Schering Bridge;
Wien Series Bridge;
Wien Parallel Bridge.

17. A.C. Filter Networks
Applications of Filter Networks;
Different Types of Filters;
Octaves and Decades of frequency;
Decibel System;
Value of 1 dB;
Low-Pass RC Filter;
Other Types of Low-Pass Filters; 
Low-Pass RL Filter;
High-Pass R C Filter;
High Pass R L Filter;
R-C Bandpass Filter;
R-C Bandstop Filter;
The-3 dB Frequencies;
Roll-off of the Response Curve;
Bandstop and Bandpass Resonant Filter Circuits;
Series-and Parallel-Resonant Bandstop Filters;
Parallel-Resonant Bandstop Filter;
Series-Resonant Bandpass Filter;
Parallel-Resonant Bandpass Filter.

18. Circle Diagrams
Circle Diagram of a Series Circuit;
Rigorous Mathematical Treatment;
Constant Resistance but Variable Reactance;
Properties of Constant Reactance But Variable Resistance Circuit;
Simple Transmission Line Circuit.

19. Polyphase Circuits
Generation of Polyphase Voltages;
Phase Sequence;
Phases Sequence At Load;
The numbering of Phases;
Interconnection of Three Phases;
Star or Wye (Y) Connection;
Values of Phase Currents;
Voltages and Currents in Y-Connection;
Delta (D) or Mesh Connection;
Balanced Y/D and D/Y Conversions;
Star and Delta Connected Lighting Loads;
Power Factor Improvement;
Power Correction Equipment;
Parallel Loads;
Power Measurement in 3-phase Circuits;
Three Wattmeter Method;
Two Wattmeter Method;
Balanced or Unbalanced load;
Two Wattmeter Method-Balanced Load;
Variations in Wattmeter Readings;
Leading Power Factor;
Power Factor-Balanced Load;
Balanced Load-LPF;
Reactive Voltamperes with One Wattmeter;
One Wattmeter Method;
Copper Required for Transmitting Power Under Fixed Conditions; Double Subscript Notation;
Unbalanced Loads;
Unbalanced D-connected Load;
Four-wire Star-connected Unbalanced Load;
Unbalanced Y-connected Load Without Neutral;
Millman’s Theorem;
Application of Kirchhoff's Laws;
Delta/Star and Star/Delta Conversions;
Unbalanced Star-connected Non-inductive Load;
Phase Sequence Indicators.

20. Harmonics
Fundamental Wave and Harmonics;
Different Complex Waveforms;
General Equation of a Complex Wave;
R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave;
Form Factor of a Complex Wave;
Power Supplied by a Complex Wave;
Harmonics in Single-phase A.C Circuits;
Selective Resonance Due to Harmonics;
Effect of Harmonics on Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance;
Harmonics in Different Three-phase Systems;
Harmonics in Single and 3-Phase Transformer.

21. Fourier Series 
Harmonic Analysis;
Periodic Functions;
Trigonometric Fourier Series;
Alternate Forms of Trigonometric Fourier Series;
Certain Useful Integral Calculus Theorems;
Evaluation of Fourier Constants;
Different Types of Functional Symmetries;
Line or Frequency Spectrum;
Procedure for Finding the Fourier Series of a Given Function;
Wave Analyzer;
Spectrum Analyzer;
Fourier Analyzer;
Harmonic Synthesis.

22. Transients 

What is Transients;
Types of Transients;
Important Differential Equations;
Transients in R-L Circuits (D.C.); 
Short Circuit Current;
Time Constant;
Transients in R-L Circuits (A.C.);
Transients in R-C Series Circuits (D.C.);
Transients in R-C Series Circuits (A.C);
Double Energy Transients.

23. Symmetrical Components
The Positive-sequence Components;
The Negative-sequence Components;
The Zero-sequence Components;
Graphical Composition of Sequence Vectors;
Evaluation of VA1 or V1;
Evaluation of VA2 or V2;
Evaluation VA0 or V0;
Zero Sequence Components of Current and Voltage;
Unbalanced Star Load form Unbalanced Three-phase Three-Wire System; 
Unbalanced Star Load Supplied from Balanced Three-phase Three-wire System;
Measurement of Symmetrical Components of Circuits;
Measurement of Positive and Negative-sequence Voltages;
Measurement of Zero- sequence Component of Voltage.

24. Introduction to Electrical Energy Generation
Preference for Electricity;
Comparison of Sources of Power;
Sources for Generation of Electricity;
Brief Aspects of Electrical Energy Systems;
Utility and Consumers;
Why is the Three-phase A.C. system Most Popular?;
Cost of Generation;
Staggering of Loads during peak-demand Hours;
Classifications of Power Transmission;
Selecting A.C. Transmission Voltage for a Particular Case; Conventional Sources of Electrical Energy;
Steam Power Stations (Coal-fired);
Nuclear Power Stations;
Advantages of Nuclear Generation;
Disadvantages of Nuclear Generation;
Hydroelectric Generation;
Non-Conventional Energy Sources;
Photo Voltaic Cells (P.V. Cells or SOLAR Cells);
Fuel Cells;
Principle of Operation;
Chemical Process (with Acidic Electrolyte);
Schematic Diagram;
Array for Large outputs;
High Lights;
Wind Power.

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