Electrostatics is a branch of physics that explores the study of stationary electric charges and their interactions. It deals with the behavior of electric charges at rest, investigating phenomena such as electric fields, potential differences, and the forces that arise between charged objects. At the heart of electrostatics is Coulomb's Law, which quantifies the force between two point charges and highlights the inverse square relationship between the distance separating them.

The fundamental concept of electric charge, whether positive or negative, forms the basis for understanding the intricate workings of electrostatic phenomena.

Through this field of physics, scientists and engineers gain insights into practical applications such as the operation of capacitors, the behavior of insulating materials, and the principles underlying electrostatic precipitators.

Electrostatics plays a crucial role in our daily lives, from the workings of household appliances to the complexities of advanced technological systems, making it an essential area of study with far-reaching implications in the realm of physics and engineering.

**Static Electricity:**

Refers to the imbalance of electric charges within an object, leading to the buildup of static electric fields.

**Absolute and Relative Permittivity of a Medium:**

Absolute permittivity (ε) is a measure of how easily a medium can be polarized by an electric field. Relative permittivity (εr) is the ratio of a material's permittivity to the permittivity of free space.

**Laws of Electrostatics:**

These include Coulomb's Law, which describes the force between two charged objects, and the principles of superposition and conservation of charge.

**Electric Field:**

A vector field that describes the force experienced by a charged particle at any given point in space.

**Electrostatic Induction:**

The process by which a charged object induces a charge on a neutral object without direct contact.

**Electric Flux and Faraday Tubes:**

Electric flux is a measure of the electric field passing through a surface. Faraday tubes represent imaginary lines used to visualize the electric field.

**Field Strength or Field Intensity or Electric Intensity (E):**

Describes the force experienced by a unit positive charge in an electric field.

**Electric Flux Density or Electric Displacement (D):**

Relates the electric field in a material to the free and bound charge within that material.

**Gauss Law:**

Describes the relationship between the electric flux through a closed surface and the charge enclosed by that surface.

**The Equations of Poisson and Laplace:**

Mathematical equations describing the electric potential in a region with charge distribution.

**Electric Potential and Energy:**

Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit charge at a point in space.

**Potential and Potential Difference:**

The electric potential difference between two points is the work done per unit charge to move a charge between those points.

**The Potential at a Point:**

Describes the electric potential at a specific point due to surrounding charges.

**Potential of a Charged Sphere:**

The electric potential around a uniformly charged sphere.

**Equipotential Surfaces:**

Surfaces where the electric potential is the same at every point.

**Potential and Electric Intensity:**

The relationship between electric potential and electric field intensity.

**Inside a Conducting Sphere:**

Describes the distribution of charges and electric field inside a conducting sphere.

**Potential Gradient:**

The rate of change of electric potential with distance.

**Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength:**

Breakdown voltage is the minimum voltage required to cause electrical breakdown in a material. Dielectric strength is a material's ability to withstand electric stress without breaking down.

**The factor of Dielectric:**

Describes how a dielectric affects the capacitance of a capacitor.

**Boundary Conditions:**

Describes the behavior of electric fields and potentials at the boundaries between different media.

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