Sunday, March 17, 2019


High Voltage Power Transmission Tower

Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Power Efficient and Smartly.

Considering the main parts of a typical Transmission & Distribution network, here are the average values of power losses at the different steps:

1-2% – Step-up transformer from generator to Transmission line

2-4% – Transmission line
1-2% – Step-down transformer from Transmission line to Distribution network
4-6% – Distribution network transformers and cables

The overall losses between the power plant and consumers is then in the range between 8 and 15%.

Except some isolated individual normal generation, most of national grid electricity is not used in the same place where it is generated. Meaning is that some individual normal scale generator may produce electricity for industrial, commercial or residential purposes where it used; but mass scale produced electricity actually generates far distance from consumer or city center.   Sense is that long-distance electrical transmission and distribution systems are necessary; that is ours topic today Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Power Efficient and Smartly.

There are many obligations, advantages and disadvantages of electrical power generation, transmission and distribution from distance to consumer end; but todays focus only energy losses due to transmitting electricity over distance via networks. Electrical energy losses are very well known to us as system loss.

There is a myth here in Bangladesh, system losses means it is causes of some dishonest employees of the utility company. Fact is that without system losses electrical network is not possible ever. Following efficient and smart electrical energy transmission and distribution system this losses may keep in economic level, not in zero level.

In presence of high electrical power demand compare to less power generation in Bangladesh we need to minimize this loss to achieve the main goals: Reduce resource consumption while delivering more power to users. Reducing consumption can be done in at least two ways: deliver electrical energy more efficient and smartly and change consumer habits.

Transmitting electrical energy from generating station to user’s end through electrical transmission and distribution network require power cable, power transformer, operating and protective equipments which create three types of energy loss:

Energy is lost as heat in copper or aluminium conductor, causes joule effect;

Energy dissipates into a magnetic field which is magnetic loss;

Energy is absorbed in insulating materials, causes of dielectric effect.

Above-mentioned causes for loss of electricity is totally technical, expert and engineers only can control this type of losses. Others way electricity user also can control the loss and reduce their consumption just changing their habits.

Changing consumer habits needs smart awareness-raising programmes, taking undertaken by governments or activist groups over and over again. Simple things, such as turning off lights in unoccupied rooms, or switching off the television/electronic devices at night (not just putting standby mode), use water pump/ laundry at non-peak hour, or setting the air-conditioner temperature at 25oC.

Technology is changing and improving day by day, of course also for electrical energy transmitting system. More efficient and smart conductors, transformers and equipments are building for energy transmission and distribution network. High efficiency transformers, superconducting transformers, high temperature superconductor are new smart and efficient technologies in this side.

Just getting idea, conductor losses about 2.5% to 3%, transformer and equipment losses about 1% to 2%. Imagine what is our benefit if 1% energy is saved or loss is reduced; say our electricity generation is 10,000 mega watts. 1% loss means 100 mega watts that can electrify more 20,000 houses, in rural area it may be 100,000 houses. So, you electricity user can efficient and smart your electrical power transmission and distribution of system and light up more houses just switching off your un-occupied rooms. 

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