## How Do You Do Transformer Winding Resistance Test by DC Current?

Considering the basic principle of operation is to inject a DC current through the transformer winding to be measured, and then read the voltage drop across that winding.

We may refer to formula for DC voltage across the transformer  is, V = I * R
where,
V= DC voltage across transformer winding;
I = DC current through transformer winding; &
R = desired calculated resistance of the transformer winding.

#### How Prepare for Transformer Winding Testing?

1. Selecting the Proper Current Range, transformer manufacturers typically recommend that the current output selected should not exceed about 10% of the rated winding current;
2. Cause erroneous readings due to heating of the winding;
3. Always choose the highest current output possible for the expected resistance value;
4. Typical ranges are 0.1-10 % of rated winding current;
5. The temperature of the winding shall be assumed to be the same as the temperature of the insulating liquid;
6. It should not be assumed that the winding are at the same temperature as the surrounding air;
7. For star connected winding, the resistance shall be measured between the line and neutral terminal;
8. For delta connected winding, measurement of winding resistance shall be done between pairs of line terminals.
As in delta connection the resistance of individual winding can not be measured separately, the resistance per winding shall be calculated with the following formula:
Resistance per winding = 1.5 x Measured value

he resistance is measured at ambient temperature and then converted to resistance at 75˚C or 85˚C  for all practical purposes of comparison with specified design values, previous results and diagnostics.

Winding Resistance at reference temperature of 75° C or 85° C

R = Rm (234.5 + Ref. Temp)/(234.5 + Meas. Temp)

### How Measure Winding Resistance at Delta Side?

Average of the (3) Phase measurements multiplied by 9/2 or 4.5. This is the 3-phase sum resistance at the temperature the resistance was measured.

Resistance measured: H1-H3 = 0.665, H2-H1 = 0.664, H3-H2 = 0.666 at an oil
temperature of 26°C.
The average resistance of the (3) phases is 0.665. This (0.665) multiplied by 4.5 equals 2.993. The unit is a 55/65 rise transformer, therefore to correct the resistance to the reference temperature 75°C, use the correction formula:
(234.5 + 75) / (234.5 + 26) = 1.1881

So the corrected 3-phase sum resistance is, 2.993 * 1.1881 = 3.554 ohms;
Working backwards from the test report: HV position 3 resistance reported on the  test report is 3.554. Determine oil temperature of transformer at time of resistance measurement (say its 26°C again).   3.554 / 1.1881 = 2.991
2.991 / 4.5 = 0.665

The measured resistance between two bushings (one phase) should be approx. 0.665 ohms.

### How Measure Winding Resistance at Star or Y-Side?

If measuring between L-N, then add each of the L-N measurements together. This is the 3-phase sum resistance at the measured temperature. The resistance needs to be corrected the same as for the Delta connection above.
If measuring a Wye connection L-L, then add each of the L-L measurements and divide by 2. This is the 3-phase sum resistance at the measured temperature. Correct resistance to reference temperature as above.

#### How Measure Line to Neutral Resistance?

Resistance measured between X1-XO = 0.0394, X2-XO = 0.0393, X3-XO =
0.0397 at an oil temperature of 26°C. The 3-phase sum is:
0.0394 + 0.0393 + 0.0397  = 0.1184;
Corrected to 75°C:
0.1184 * 1.1881 = 0.1407 ohms.

#### How Measure Line to Line Resistance?

Resistance measured between X1-X2 = 0.0782, X2-X3 = 0.0783, X3-X1 = 0.0785
at an oil temperature of 26°C. The 3-phase sum is:
(0.0782 + 0.0783 + 0.0785) / 2 = 0.1175;
Corrected to 75°C”
0.1175 * 1.1881 = 0.1396 ohms .
The 3-phase sum of the resistance between the L-N and L-L measurements are
slightly different because the L-N measurement has the XO lead cable in the circuit.

### How Confirm the Measurement is Correct?

Comparing the factory value or factory standard and  the previous measured value can help to confirm the measured value is satisfactory or not.

So, note the below points and compare:
1. Comparing to original factory measurements
2. Comparing to previous field measurements
3. Comparing one phase to another
4. Industry standard (factory) permits a maximum difference of  0.5% from average of three phase wingdings.
5. Field readings may vary slightly more than this due to the many  variables. If all readings are within 1% of each other, they are  acceptable.

### When Do Need to Carryout the Transformer Winding Resistance Test?

Test In the factory:
1. To know the manufacturing is correct or not;
2. To calculate conductor losses;
3. Calculations of DC component of conductor losses;
4. Calculation of winding temperature at the end of a temperature test cycle.
5. Measuring the  resistance of the winding assures that the connections are correct and the resistance  measurements indicates that there are no severe mismatches or opens.

#### Test on Site:

To evaluate possible winding damage, such as short circuits between  winding or between turns; open circuits; contact problems; condition of the tap changer.

#### Test at Installation:

1. Risk of damage is significant whenever a transformer is moved damage will often involve a current carrying component such as the LTC,  DETC or a connector,
2. Serves as a verification of the manufacturers work,
3. Installation measurements should be filed for future reference

#### Transformer Routine Maintenance:

Transformer routine maintenance is required to verify operating integrity and to assure reliability.
1. To detect damage to the transformer;
2. To determine if it is safe to re-energize;
3. To determine if corrective action is necessary;
4. To establish priority of corrective action.

#### At Internal Transformer Inspections:

Internal inspections are expensive due primarily to the cost of oil processing. When such opportunities do present themselves the inspection should be  planned and thorough.

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WAZIPOINT:
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