WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: Method of Tower Grounding | Electrical Transmission Line

# What is the purpose of a tower grounding?

Not only tower grounding, but it is also fundamental and essential in an electrical system for both the safety and reliability of the system.

The most important part of grounding is to protect people, structures, and equipment since damage can cause outage or malfunction and result in economic losses of great value.

Installation of a proper grounding must ensure a safe and controlled power flow with minimum losses. A perfect grounding of a system also limits the voltage stress on cables and equipment and extend the lifetime of the installations.

## What should be the tower grounding resistance?

Tower grounding is used to reduce earth wire potential and stress on insulators at the time of stroke and also for safety.

Typically tower grounding resistance needs to be maintained as below:

1. Tower footing resistance will be 10Ω and should not be more than 20 Ω under any condition throughout the year;
2. Earth resistance depends upon soil resistivity (general 100 Ω-m).
The tower grounding resistance of a ground electrode depends on the resistance of-
1. electrode material;
2. the contact resistance of the electrode to the soil;
3. the resistivity of the soil.
Soil resistivity is defined as the resistivity of a 1 m3 sized cube between the two opposite sides and is measured in ohmmeter or ohm centimetres.

### What is the Method of Tower Grounding?

In tower grounding, different methods are used for connection to the ground depending on the facility and its function, but all connections are called ground electrodes.

Buried Conductor
One or more conductors are connected to tower lags and buried in a backfilled tower foundation. Buried conductor-type tower grounding is used where the soil resistivity is low.

Counterpoise Wire
A length of wire or Strip of around 50m is buried horizontally at a depth of around 0.5m below the ground and this wire is connected to tower legs. Counterpoise wire tower grounding is used when earth resistance is very high and soil conductivity is
mostly confined to the upper layer.

Rod Pipe
A pipe or Rod of around 3 to 4 m is driven into the ground near the tower and the top of the rod is connected to the tower by a suitable wire or strip. This rod pipe tower grounding is used where ground conductivity increases with the depth of soil.

Treated Earth Pits
Pipes or Rods of around 3 to 4m are buried in treated earth pits and the top of the rod is connected to a tower by a suitable wire or strip. The treated earth pit type tower grounding is used in very high resistivity soil near the tower.