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Showing posts from February, 2016

INDICATING LAMPS AND COLOR SELECTION FOR PANEL

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Indicating Lamps Selection Procedure for Electrical Distribution and Controlling PanelIndicating lamps directly not affect electrical distribution network, means power not go breakdown; but it make sure the status of the electrical circuit or a part of that. Sometime it becomes prime issue for safety-induction. What Should Become in Consideration to Select Indicator LampsFirst of all lifetime of indication lamps is an important issue to select lamps, not because of saving price but because of avoid hassle to replace dead lamp by new one. So, it is expected, all new indicators should have a minimum continuous burning guaranteed life of 10,000 hours, at their rated voltage. Indicators should be of the filament lamp, LED or neon type indicator lamps also may use, depends on user choice. It might considerable to LED indicators, should operate at not less than 20mA and red LED indicators should be of the high brightness types. Indicator lamps placement should be easily replaceable from the f…

Story of Ancient Electricity

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Ancient Electricity Generation and Using ProcedureHerein this article will try the understand the history of first electricity evaluation and ancient electricity generation procedure and the uses of electricity. We also introduce our-self to Bagdad Battery.
History of ElectricityIn 600 BCThales of Miletus (a Greek colony on the west coast of present day Turkey) writes about amber (elektron in Greek) with cat fur and picks up bits of feathers, becoming charged by rubbing - he was describing what we now call static electricity.



There is a tale, in 900 BC Magnus, a Greek shepherd, walks across a field of black stones which pull the iron nails out of his sandals and the iron tip from his shepherd's stuff. This region becomes known as Magnesia.

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Baghdad batterySome says electricity was originally generated and widely utilized in ancient Egypt, the Baghdad battery and the first arc lights were used at that time.
In 1936, during excavating wreck of a 2000-year-old village Khuyut Ra…

STORAGE PROTECTION AND HANDLING FACILITIES

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The Site Materials Storage Protection and Handling Procedure
The service-provider should be responsible for providing his own storage area for the storage and protection against loss, theft or damage of plant, equipment and materials during the execution of the contract and until handover the plant.
The Service-provider should be responsible for the off-loading, transport and all handling of plant etc., supplied by him or his sub-service-providers.
The handling and storage of any plant at the site are to be at the risk and responsibility of the Service-provider and will not be the responsibility of the Employer. Watchmen should be provided by the Service-provider on own responsibility.
The Service-provider is to arrange for the protection of all material against corrosion and mechanical damage during storage and erection at the site, to the satisfaction of the Employer. What Facilities Should be Provide at Site-store

The Service-provider should provide lockable cabinets in each of the indiv…

PACKING AND MARKING GENERAL SPACIFICATION FOR SHIPMENT

General Packing and Marking Specification for Engineering Plant and Equipment Shipment
The purpose of this article to provide the general packing and marking specification and guideline to the suppliers, employers, vendors, transportation and erection contractor for an engineering plant and equipment shipment in an electrical power transmission line underground cable installation project under turnkey basis. 

The service-provider or the main contractor is the responsible to shift and transport the equipment and plant from abroad and within the employer country following the all rules and regulations.
This specification or guideline is the minimum requirements, the service-provider or vendor will ensure by his own experience using the nature of plant item and exact requirements in destination.
Packing and Marking MethodEach item is to be export packed and properly protected for shipment, transport and storage in the port area and for transport to and storage on Site.

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All Plant pr…

PLANT HANDOVER-TAKEOVER PROCEDURE AFTER ACHIEVEMENT

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The Handover-Takeover Procedure after Achievement a Turnkey Project The article furnished to prepare a project for final tusk just turn the key from service-provider to employer, after completion the all work to able the plant run successfully. Here denoted the procedure- commissioning the plant after finishing all physical works, the guideline for responsibility of any defect after handing over the plant and final acceptance procedure of the project. Plant Taking Over Conditions after Completion the WorkAfter satisfactory completion of the tests on commissioning, the Engineer will issue a taking over certificate for the plant. 

The issue of any such certificate shall not however relieve the Service-provider of any of his responsibilities in respect of proving that the performance of the plant meets the guaranteed values. The Taking over certificate shall make reference to a schedule of outstanding minor defects and omissions which have been accepted by the Engineer as not affecting the …

SPARE PARTS PROVISION AND OBLIGATION

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The Spare Parts Provision and Condition Included as Obligation for service-provider

The Service-provider is to propose comprehensive schedules of spare parts requirement for 5 years service of the Plant.
Those Spare Parts required for routine maintenance are to be provided under the contract agreement.
The Service-provider should provide detailed schedules of those emergency spares he considers that it would be prudent for the Employer to purchase in schedule as Recommended Spare Parts.
The Service-provider should guarantee and provide certificate from the manufacturers that spare parts for all plant should be available for a minimum period of 10 years from contract completion.

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Spare Parts Delivery and Handover RequirementsThe local currency element should include all handling, local transport and delivery to a store or stores nominated by the Employer. Spares should be handed over to the Employer as soon as they arrive on site, and should be checked in the presence of the Emplo…

Current Ratings Correction Factors on Cable Laying Conditions

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Continuous Current Ratings Correction Factor Varies on Different Cable Laying Conditions Today we will try to find how various laying conditions of cable become a factor for current ratings of XLPE insulated copper conductor power cables, means depends on cable laying various condition current carrying capacity increase or decrease. Such as various ambient air temperatures, various ground temperatures, various thermal resistivity of ground and various depth of cable laying is the factor for cable current ratings. 
In our previous post Continuous Current Ratings of XLPE Insulated Power Cablewe try to find the current carrying capacity for various sheathed like Aluminium, Lead or Copper wire shield XLPE insulated copper cable.
To determine current capacity for the various laying conditions than those indicated on the every table, multiply table values by the correction factors shown below.

Correction Factors for Various Ambient Air Temperatures
Air Temperature(oC) 20 oC 25 oC 30 oC 35 oC 40 oC 45…