WAZIPOINT Engineering Science & Technology: All-day Efficiency of Transformer

Sunday, February 26, 2023

All-day Efficiency of Transformer

The All-day Efficiency of the Transformer is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a period of 24 hours. It can be defined as the ratio of output to input in kWh for 24 hours.

What is the all-day Efficiency of the Transformer?

If we go little more detail we know a transformer has two kinds of losses that we discussed in another article:

Core loss or Iron loss of a transformer: this kind of transformer loss takes place in the transformer's core that continues the whole day because the core is always energized. The transformer does not need to in loaded to cause the core loss, just in energization condition.

Variable or Copper loss of a transformer: this kind of transformer loss occurs in the copper winding of a transformer. Copper loss happens while the transformer is loaded condition.

How do calculate the all-day efficiency of a transformer?

The power supplied to the load plus resistive, eddy current, hysteresis, and flux losses must equal the input power. The input power is always greater than the output power. The efficiency is actually the ratio of output and input power in percentage. The efficiencies of power transformers normally vary from 97 to 99 percent. 

The maximum efficiency in such transformers occurs at about 60-70 % of the full load. So by proper design, high energy efficiencies can be achieved for distribution transformers. The transformer's all-day efficiency may calculate as below:

All Day Efficiency = Output (in kWh) in 24 hours/ Input (in kWh) in 24 hours

To know the exact value of all-day efficiency, we must know about the load cycle i.e. how much load is connected to the transformer and for how much time the load is connected (in 24 hours).

Please do not confuse the transformer efficiency and the transformer all-day efficiency. The transformer efficiency that we learned as-

The ordinary or commercial efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to input power.


Why is transformer efficiency normally high?

Compared to other electrical machinery like an electric motor, or generator, the transformer efficiency is higher, normally 95 to 97%. The reason is that there is no rotating part in the transformer. 

As the transformer operates on the magnetizing phenomenon and it has no rotating parts, its efficiency is very high. It usually stays above 95% but as the power flows across a transformer is very high even small changes in terms of efficiency percentage give significant energy savings.

Case Study of Transformer Efficiency

A 500 KVA transformer has 2500 watts iron loss, and 7500 watts copper loss at full load. The power factor is 0.8 lagging. Calculate transformer efficiency at full load,
maximum efficiency of the transformer,
output KVA corresponding to maximum efficiency,
transformer efficiency at half load.

Solution: Transformer rating = 500 KVA
Transformer output power = 500,000 x 0.8 = 400,000 watts

Iron losses (Pi) = 2500 W
Full load copper loss (Pcu) = 7500 W

Transformer Efficiency at Full Load

= [(output power)/(output power + Pi +Pcu)] x 100
= [(400,000)/(400,000 + 2500 + 7500)] x 100
= 97.56% (Ans)

Maximum Efficiency of Transformer

For maximum efficiency, Copper loss (Pc) = Iron losses (Pi) = 2500 W
= [(output power)/(output power + Pi +Pc)] x 100
Therefore, maximum efficiency = [(400,000)/(400,000 + 2500 + 2500)] x 100
= 98.76% (Ans),

Output KVA Corresponding to Maximum Efficiency

= full load KVA x √(Pi/Pc)
= 500 x √(2500/7500)
= 500 x √0.333 = 166.5 KVA (Ans)

If you are interested about to know anything regarding transformers the following article is enough for you:

Transformer working principle and uses in the electrical engineering field

You may know the details about the electrical transformer from the following articles:

  1. Working Principle of Transformer;
  2. Transformer Construction;
  3. Core-type Transformers;
  4. Shell-type Transformers;
  5. Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformer;
  6. E.M.F. Equation of Transformer;
  7. Voltage Transformation Ratio;
  8. Transformer with losses but no Magnetic Leakage;
  9. Transformer on No-load;
  10. Transformer on Load;
  11. Transformer with Winding Resistance but no Magnetic Leakage;
  12. Equivalent Resistance;
  13. Magnetic Leakage;
  14. Transformer with Resistance and Leakage Reactance;
  15. Simplified Diagram;
  16. Total Approximate Voltage Drop in Transformer;
  17. Exact Voltage Drop;
  18. Equivalent Circuit Transformer Tests;
  19. Open-circuit or No-load Test;
  20. Separation of Core Losses;
  21. Short-Circuit or Impedance Test;
  22. Why Transformer Rating in KVA?;
  23. Regulation of a Transformer;
  24. Percentage Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance;
  25. Kapp Regulation Diagram;
  26. Sumpner or Back-to-back-Test;
  27. The efficiency of a Transformer;
  28. Condition for Maximum Efficiency;
  29. Variation of Efficiency with Power Factor;
  30. All-day Efficiency;
  31. Auto-transformer;
  32. Conversion of 2-Winding Transformer into Auto-transformer;
  33. Parallel Operation of Single-phase Transformers;
  34. Questions and Answers on Transformers;
  35. Three-phase Transformers;
  36. Three-phase Transformer Connections;
  37. Star/Star or Y/Y Connection;
  38. Delta-Delta or ∆/∆ Connection;
  39. Wye/Delta or Y/ Connection;
  40. Delta/Wye or ∆/Y Connection;
  41. Open-Delta or V-V Connection;
  42. Power Supplied by V-V Bank;
  43. Scott Connection or T-T Connection;
  44. Three-phase to Two-Phase Conversion and vice-versa;
  45. Parallel Operation of 3-phase Transformers;
  46. Instrument Transformers;
  47. Current Transformers;
  48. Potential or Voltage Transformers.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Thank you very much to visit and valuable comments on this blog post. Keep in touch for next and new article. Share your friends and well-wisher, share your idea to worldwide.

You may like the following pages