Kapp regulation diagram (or in short Kapp diagram) - a graphical method of determining the voltage regulation in a transformer caused by changes in load and power factor.

The Kapp diagram is helpful in finding the voltage reduction or increase (voltage regulation).

Kapp had designed a diagram shown in the Figure below to determine the regulation at any power factor. The description of the construction of the diagram is shown below:

Figure: Kapp’s Diagram |

Load current (

*I*2) is taken as a reference phasor. OA representing*V*2 is drawn at angle*θ*2 with*I*2. AB represents*I*2*R*02 drawn parallel to*I*2, whereas BC represents*I*2*X*02 drawn perpendicular to AB, i.e.,*I*2. Here OC represents secondary emf (0*V*2 =*E*2) at no-load. Circle 1 known as often circuit EMF circle is drawn with O as centre and OC as radius.The line OO′ is drawn parallel to AC representing

*I*2*Z*02. With O as a centre and OA as a radius, circle 2 known as terminal voltage circle is drawn, which intersects with circle 1 at the points D and E.The region above and below the reference line represents the lagging and leading power factors region, respectively.

Point D is the point corresponding to zero regulation. The intercept FG gives the maximum regulation, which is drawn through O and drawn parallel to AC.

The regulation at any power factor angle

*θ*is obtained by extending OA to meet the outer circle at H. The regulation at the required power factor cos*θ*is represented by AH, which is the intercept between the two circles.
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