Kapp regulation diagram (or in short Kapp diagram) - a graphical method of determining the voltage regulation in a transformer caused by changes in load and power factor.

The Kapp diagram is helpful in finding the voltage reduction or increase (voltage regulation).

Kapp had designed a diagram shown in the Figure below to determine the regulation at any power factor. The description of the construction of the diagram is shown below:

Figure: Kapp’s Diagram |

Load current (

*I*2) is taken as a reference phasor. OA representing*V*2 is drawn at angle*θ*2 with*I*2. AB represents*I*2*R*02 drawn parallel to*I*2, whereas BC represents*I*2*X*02 drawn perpendicular to AB, i.e.,*I*2. Here OC represents secondary emf (0*V*2 =*E*2) at no-load. Circle 1 known as often circuit EMF circle is drawn with O as centre and OC as radius.The line OO′ is drawn parallel to AC representing

*I*2*Z*02. With O as a centre and OA as a radius, circle 2 known as terminal voltage circle is drawn, which intersects with circle 1 at the points D and E.The region above and below the reference line represents the lagging and leading power factors region, respectively.

Point D is the point corresponding to zero regulation. The intercept FG gives the maximum regulation, which is drawn through O and drawn parallel to AC.

The regulation at any power factor angle

*θ*is obtained by extending OA to meet the outer circle at H. The regulation at the required power factor cos*θ*is represented by AH, which is the intercept between the two circles.You may know the details about the electrical transformer from the following articles:

- Working Principle of Transformer;
- Transformer Construction;
- Core-type Transformers;
- Shell-type Transformers;
- Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformer;
- E.M.F. Equation of Transformer;
- Voltage Transformation Ratio;
- Transformer with losses but no Magnetic Leakage;
- Transformer on No-load;
- Transformer on Load;
- Transformer with Winding Resistance but no Magnetic Leakage;
- Equivalent Resistance;
- Magnetic Leakage;
- Transformer with Resistance and Leakage Reactance;
- Simplified Diagram;
- Total Approximate Voltage Drop in Transformer;
- Exact Voltage Drop;
- Equivalent Circuit Transformer Tests;
- Open-circuit or No-load Test;
- Separation of Core Losses;
- Short-Circuit or Impedance Test;
- Why Transformer Rating in KVA?;
- Regulation of a Transformer;
- Percentage Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance;
- Kapp Regulation Diagram;
- Sumpner or Back-to-back-Test;
- The efficiency of a Transformer;
- Condition for Maximum Efficiency;
- Variation of Efficiency with Power Factor;
- All-day Efficiency;
- Auto-transformer;
- Conversion of 2-Winding Transformer into Auto-transformer;
- Parallel Operation of Single-phase Transformers;
- Questions and Answers on Transformers;
- Three-phase Transformers;
- Three-phase Transformer Connections;
- Star/Star or Y/Y Connection;
- Delta-Delta or ∆/∆ Connection;
- Wye/Delta or Y/ Connection;
- Delta/Wye or ∆/Y Connection;
- Open-Delta or V-V Connection;
- Power Supplied by V-V Bank;
- Scott Connection or T-T Connection;
- Three-phase to Two-Phase Conversion and vice-versa;
- Parallel Operation of 3-phase Transformers;
- Instrument Transformers;
- Current Transformers;
- Potential or Voltage Transformers.

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