**How to draw the Equivalent Circuit Diagram of a Transformer?**

### What should be considered during draw the Transformer equivalent circuit diagram?

Considering the two major parts of a transformer- primary winding and secondary winding with their parameters the equivalent circuit would be as above;

where,

R

_{1}= Primary Winding Resistance.R

_{2}= Secondary winding Resistance.I

_{0}= No-load current.I

_{µ}= Magnetizing Component,I

_{w}= Working Component,This I

_{µ}& I_{w}are connected in parallel across the primary circuit.The value of E

_{1}( Primary e.m.f ) is obtained by subtracting vectorially I_{1}Z_{1}from V_{1}.The value of X

_{0}= E_{1}/ I_{0}and R_{0}= E_{1}/I_{w}.We know that the relation of E

_{1}and E_{2}is E_{2}/E_{1}= N_{2}/N_{1}= K. The K is known as the**Transformation Ratio.**### Calculation of Transformer Equivalent Circuit Diagram

Now, you can easily calculate the total impedance to transfer voltage, current, and impedance either to the primary or the secondary from the equivalent circuit of a transformer considering parameters as below:

### Why Transformers Are Rated In KVA instate of KW?

From the below transformer

**open circuit or no-load test**and**short circuit or Impedance test**on Transformer, it can be seen that Cu (Copper) loss of a transformer depends on current, and iron loss depends on voltage. This means the total transformer loss depends on Voltage and Current (VA). It does not depend on the phase angle between voltage and current. We can say the transformer loss is independent of the load power factor. This is the reason that transformers are rated in kVA instate of KW.
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