The ordinary or commercial efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to input power.

**Efficiency = η = Output / Input**

Efficiency = η= Output / (Output + Losses)

As Input = Output + Losses.

## Maximum Efficiency of Transformer

Ideally, the Maximum Efficiency of the Transformer is 100% considering no loss and zero voltage regulation. As there is no moving part in the transformer, there will be no frictional losses so it will be around 97–99%.

The efficiency will eventually go down for a number of reasons.

Efficiency is maximum in a transformer when Copper losses = Iron losses.

V2= Secondary terminal voltage.

I2= Full load secondary current.

Cosϕ2= Power factor of the load.

pi= Iron loss= eddy current loss + Hysteresis loss = Constant loss.

Pc= Full load Copper losses.

The efficiency is a load function i.e., load current I2 assuming cos Φ constant. The secondary terminal voltage V2 is also taken constantly.

So for maximum efficiency,

### Case Study of Transformer Efficiency

### Transformer Efficiency at Full Load

### Maximum Efficiency of Transformer

#### Output KVA Corresponding to Maximum Efficiency

You may know the details about the electrical transformer from the following articles:

- Working Principle of Transformer;
- Transformer Construction;
- Core-type Transformers;
- Shell-type Transformers;
- Elementary Theory of an Ideal Transformer;
- E.M.F. Equation of Transformer;
- Voltage Transformation Ratio;
- Transformer with losses but no Magnetic Leakage;
- Transformer on No-load;
- Transformer on Load;
- Transformer with Winding Resistance but no Magnetic Leakage;
- Equivalent Resistance;
- Magnetic Leakage;
- Transformer with Resistance and Leakage Reactance;
- Simplified Diagram;
- Total Approximate Voltage Drop in Transformer;
- Exact Voltage Drop;
- Equivalent Circuit Transformer Tests;
- Open-circuit or No-load Test;
- Separation of Core Losses;
- Short-Circuit or Impedance Test;
- Why Transformer Rating in KVA?;
- Regulation of a Transformer;
- Percentage Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance;
- Kapp Regulation Diagram;
- Sumpner or Back-to-back-Test;
- The efficiency of a Transformer;
- Condition for Maximum Efficiency;
- Variation of Efficiency with Power Factor;
- All-day Efficiency;
- Auto-transformer;
- Conversion of 2-Winding Transformer into Auto-transformer;
- Parallel Operation of Single-phase Transformers;
- Questions and Answers on Transformers;
- Three-phase Transformers;
- Three-phase Transformer Connections;
- Star/Star or Y/Y Connection;
- Delta-Delta or ∆/∆ Connection;
- Wye/Delta or Y/ Connection;
- Delta/Wye or ∆/Y Connection;
- Open-Delta or V-V Connection;
- Power Supplied by V-V Bank;
- Scott Connection or T-T Connection;
- Three-phase to Two-Phase Conversion and vice-versa;
- Parallel Operation of 3-phase Transformers;
- Instrument Transformers;
- Current Transformers;
- Potential or Voltage Transformers.

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